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January 28, 1981     Journal Opinion
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Page 4-The Journal Opinion-January 28, 1981 inll i n r nil i i i AST PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc. ... Publisher of Journal II Opinion Weekly newspaper pvblllked in hedferd, Vermut. SvbKrlpflen rwtwt - Verment end New Hempskire - $9.00 er yeer; $6.00 fer six mentks; cut of stl - $12.00 per year end S7.00 fer six mentks; h#ler citizen tscm# $I.00. $eceml iels peslle peid ut Imdferd, Vermont 05033. PwbUmd by Nerlheelt PvbRlhin I Cempeny, Inc., P,O. lies 371, Ilmdferd. Robert F. Huminski President & Publisher pi ss Bradford  o 3'   Woodsvitle 802-222-5281 603-747-20 i 6 An Independent Newspaper u I Editorials d Showing a human face Rules are rules, but sometimes they have to give way to humanitarian considerations. That is why we applaud the Newbury School Board's recent ac- tion to extend the kindergarten bus run nine-tenths of a mile to the home of a child whose mother recently had a new baby. " The extension was based on the hardshil to the mother in walking the nearly one mile to meet her youngster getting off the bus. She would have had to either leave the infant at home alone, or carried it with her in the cold. The motion to make the exception to the bus schedule was made on the grounds of "health and safety" to mother and children. This is the kind of consideration that gives people confidence in their elected and appointed officials, and gives those officials an opportunity to show a very human face. Let us hope we never live in a system so rigid that it can't make exceptions to the rules when there is good and sufficient reason. Free at last At last the hostages are out of Iran captors. and on their way home to welcoming families and fellow Citizens, thanks to Reagan's handling of the hostages issue, in our opinion, scored him a former incoming President Ronald Reagan. It showed that, unlike the present government in Iran, ours is a process of peaceful political government where the losers and winners still cooperate in matters of overriding national importance, instead of tearing their country apart in fac- tional feuding. If the Iranians could get over their self-indulgent jeering at the United States and the hapless hostages long enough, they might take a lesson from that, and from the quiet dignity with which their captives endured 444 days of illegal captivity--but we doubt they will. There is plenty of time for arguing over whether we should have allowed ourselves to be blackmailed into the conditions of the hostages' release and whether the conditions are bin. ding under U.S. and international law, but we think Presidents Carter and Reagan acted in good faith and the important thing is that our diplomats are free of their twisted, tormenting of President--he let it be known that he wasn't about to negotiate with those Iranian "barbarians," and thus they had better not wait for him to tackle the issue. Fearing they would get a far worse deal under Reagan than they had already extracted from Carter, the Iranians finally did the sensible thing and let our people go. One final, thing: it has been suggested by a number of newspapers that after more than 14 months in the world limelight of press and television, we give the former hostages and their families some privacy to heal the wounds of their long ordeal without a TV camera or a news reporter parked at their door- step day and night. We think that's a good idea, too. They'll talk and write about their experiences soon enough, when they're ready. To the hostages and their,families, we join the rest of the nation in saying, "Well done," under ex- tremely trying circumstances, and "welcome home." Congressional Report James M. Jeffords In the final days before the release of the American hostages in Iran. I had the unique opportunity to view first hand a side of the story which has not been widely reported by the media. Fulfilling my commitment as a Naval Reserve officer, I spent the two weeks prior to the hostage release aboard the USS Rangier. an air- craft carrier in the trea of the Persian Gulf. America's military presence in the Gulf consists of battle groups manned by thousands of young Americans, including many Vermonters They provided the backdrop and the clout behind the negotiations which ultimately succeeded in freeing the hostages. These young men, serving under the most difficult of circumstances, are the unsung heroes of the hostage drama. Many had been aboard ship for more than 150 days, working t2-hour days, seven days a week. The constant presence of military planes and ships from the Soviet Union and other nations serve as a constant reminder that they are in the area of the greatest international tension in the world today. The average age of these men is 19, and they have been working to the point of exhaustion. My initial concern was with their morale. I spokewith as many of them as possible, including 22 Vermonters, and am pleased to report that their morale is exceptionally high. They recognize the importance of their mission. But many wondered if anybody really cared. They wanted assurance that fellow Americans knew they were there, and why. I am contacting the families of the 22 Vermonters. and am releasing their names to the news media. These men deserve to be honored alongside the other heroes of "the hostage crisis: the U.S. negotiators, the "Algerian intermediaries, and of course the hostages themselves. At the same time. it should be un- derstood that there were two other factors in the resolution of the crisis, factors which have nothing to do with heroism. They are the war between Iran and Iraq and the deadline imposed by the inauguration in the U.S. The war obviously made Iran more vulnerable to the economic sanctions by the U.S. and to the implied threat of limited military action. Beyond the well publicized shortage of spare parts, Iran has become increasingly dependent upon shipping activity at its two open ports. Vital supplies continue to come in from other nations, including some which are not overtly friendly to Iran's cause. Meanwhile. Iran's economy is kept alive by continued sale of approximately a million barrels of oil per day off Kark Island. In that context, it has long been clear that the U.S. had the option of setting a deadline for release of the hostages, and enforcing it by outlining specific actions greatly increasing economic pressure. The third, to be carried odt only if the hostages were endangered, would be to undermine the Iranian Air Force by knocking out radar control st ations. Such actions would be devastating to Iran. economically and militarily in its war against Iraq, without any U.S aggression against the people of lran. No American would want to carry out such threats. But the knowledge that our nation had the option of setting a deadline and enforcing it. without direct aggression against the Iranian people, provided the only real clout we had at the bargaining table. Without such a deadline, the Iranians clearly were prepared to drag out the crisis interminably. They even bypassed the deadline which could have been worked to their greatest advantage politically : the U.S. election. The deadline ultimately accepted by the Iranians was set by events, not by initiatives of the Carter Administration. The Iranians perceived that the new Administration would be less reluctant to use the threat of limited military action as a bargaining chip, and that they could get a better deal before that chip was laid on the table than afterward. The deadline, therefore, was the inauguration. As it turned out, the role of the thousands of young Americans manning the battle groups in the Persian Gulf was only an implied factor in the success of the negotiations. But there is no question about the importance of their mission, and their contribution to" the success of the negotiations. Without their dedicated service to their nation under the most difficult of circumstances, the hostages would not have been freed. EDITOR'S NOTE: Attached is a list of Vermonters with whom Congressman Jeffords met. It should be emphasized that many other Vermonters are serving in the Gulf area, on ships other than the three which the congressman had the op portunity to visit. USS RANGER Robert E. Jones Richard Bowen James Royer Michael Gray Clyde Cain George Pritchard Dennis Fnss Bellows Falls. Vermont Newbury, Vermont St. Alhans, Vermont Barre, Vermont Wilmington, Vermont Rutland, Vermont St. Johnstmry, Vermont USS INDEPENDENCE William Bradley Steven clokey Brian McAviney Richard Hughes Kevin Blanchard Ed Hayward Chris tlame] Tony Sykes Dean Derby Plainfield, Vermont Fairfax, Vermont Colchester, Vermont Poultney, Vermont Proctor. Vermont Chester. Vermont St. Albans. Vermont Barre, Vermont Grand Isle, Vermont The first such action would most likely have been mmmg of the harbor where Iranian warships are parked, neutralizing the Iranians' threat to mine the Oman Straights. The second would likely have been mining of the harbor where oil is sold, Andrew Hurley Bennington, Vermont Mike Poche Vermont USS NIAGRA FALLS Robert St. John Barre, Vermont Frank Conover St. Johnsbury Executive Councilor Raymond S. Burton This is my first report to you in my second term as Councilor for our large north country district. It is an honor to be serving you as councilor. I know that we will not always agree on everything because the purpose of the council is to. bring five additional elected voices with votes to the executive branch of govern- ment. However. I hope you will be in touch with me from time to time about your concerns, I plan to write this column and send it to newspapers in the district each week to attempt to keep .you informed of some of the events that surround my role as your councilor. I will also be asking guest columnists to write for us about once per month. The first activity that took place on January 8th the inaugural day was a coffee hour in honor of persons who had run for the council from our large district. Lyle Hersom of Groveton and Robert Crowley of Plymouth were in attendance along with sbme tS0 other individuals from the north country area. Official state ceremonies took place in the State House and started when my own Representative Nelson Chamberlin of Bath (among others) escorted the Council into the House of Representatives. At this time I joined Malcolm McLane of Concord, Dudley Dudley of Durham, Louis Georgopolus of Manchester, and Bernard Streeter of Nashua in taking the oath of office. It is an oath that I believe very, strongly in and would like to share it with you -- "I Raymond S. Burton, do solemnly swear, that I will bear faith and true allegiance to the United States of America and the State of New Hampshire and will support the constitution thereof, so Held me God. I (please turn to page tO) U.S. Senate Report Gordon J. Humphrey During the past few years, two of the most over-worked words in the English language -- right behind "I want" and "'O.K." --- have been "'energy crisis." For time. it seemed almost impossible to pick up a newspaper or turn on the news without learning of some new reason to fear the worst. Certainly everyone should agree that the United States has become dangerously dependent on increasingly expensive and insecure sources of energy. But the news media went even further and contributed to the hysteria that we are actually running out of energy. This is simply not true. In a.recent report, seven members of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources concluded that the United States has tremendous resources of energy, but the federal government has prevented all but a fraction of these from being developed. Consider. for starters, that the federal governnent owns one-third of the nation's lands, which contain 70 per cent of all western coal resources. 85 per cent of the total oil resources. 85 per cent of all high- grade tar sands. 80 per cent of domestic oil shale resources, 40 per cent of natural gas supplies and a significant portion of our uranium and geothermal resource base. Unfortunately, most of these public lands have simply been locked up, so no development is taking place. The Department of Interior, for example. estimates U.S. reserves of coal at more than 430 billion short tons. an amount sufficient to last several hundred years. even at accelerated rates of utilization. But less than one per cent of all federal coal lands are currently under lease, and leasing has been at a virtual standstill since 1971. Similarly, a Library of Congress study printed by the Energy Committee notes that the oil shale reserves located in just three Western states "contain the equivalent of 600 billion barrels of oil. an amount that approximates the known world reserves of oil." government's total program for leasing to date consists of devel just two tracts. Well, you might be wondering, development of these lands, even ducted in a responsible way, threaten our environment? Not realize that what the Carter ministration locked up amounts than 200 million acres above and all the beautiful scenic wilderness areas already set protection and preservation by It's also worth noting that only cent of the U.S. Outer Continental currently under oil lease, but numscule portion provides more per cent of domestic oil nearly 26 per cent of natural production Finally, if the United States running out of energy, it is curious U.S. oil industry is drilling precedented rates, and, most im finding large new reserves of This surge in drilling results incentives provided by partial crude oil and natural gas. and it is expected to intensify in the bottom line, according to the members, is that: "These additions and gas reserves have decline in total reserves, and by thee 1985 we believe that the United well see additions to reserves consumption.'" So just think: if we can accom this with most of our energy still just imagine what we can do government actually begins production again. Thankfully, the works and some of the leading have stopped ignoring these their reporting of late is much balanced It's becoming again to emphasize the positive. Vermont Senate Notebook Scudder H. Parker What is black and white, about one foot tall, and weighs about 15 pounds? Why, of course, it is the stack o! reports a "new legislator has to read in order to get some kind of grasp on what all the different agencies, standing committees, and other officials are doing in state government. It is tempting to slip into a lecture about too much paper being generated with wordy reports, but that wouldn't be entirely fair. There is a great deal of learning for us to do. sidered and did not consider when they made their recommendations for shifting out of the highway fund and into the general fund "certain functions not directly related to highway construction, maintenance . . " that is, programs having to do with'other means of tran- sportation, public safety, driver education, and a number of others. It is also helpful to know how different members of the committee disagreed with the recom- mendations and what alternatives they propose. Do you remember what the first few weeks of high school were like? Well. there is a lot of similarityn being a "freshman" legislator, as the term implies. First. the level of study is higher. There are subjects you don't know much about. While everyone else in (for instance) the Senate Education Committee (which I am on) seems to know what EGL (Equalized Grand List) ADM (Average. Daily. Membership), District Multiplier (for which I still don't have a ono-line definition) mean, I am in the situation of asking the "dumb" questions, like "Would you stop and explain that please?" It is comforting to learn, though, that when you do ask the questions, others will often listen pretty carefully to the an- swers. I guess we all need a refresher course once in a while, and maybe "fresh- men" can help provide it. Another level on which you feel like a "freshman" has to do with the personal and social relations--with all the un- written things you have to believe me. the stack, of things to learn is as high as the written reports. My first day, the Education Committee, I the Legislative Council office tw actually get drafted, work gets done) had taken off my mittee room. and when I asked the to xerox the bill she said "OK you'd better put this are_ office." It took me realize what she meant, and Soule, the head of the Education mittee pointed out that it is an rule that Senators always wear a coat. So if you are in a sweater, you be an aide ! Getting to know people is just portant as getting to know all the This does not mean that "who is more mportant than "what but it is a reality of the political that good ideas do not just pop form of effective laws. A majority 180 lawmakers have to support and more importantly, at many points along the way, one or dividuals will have over the direction of a legislation. It s corn basically, I think, right that a be .hammered, bent, di added to by lots d experience and becoming law. with few months to see if I still think so! The other committee I serve on Senate Energy and Natural committee, which deals game issues in addition to its title. It is chaired by Senator of Windsor. and is a very exciting mittee to he on. I am cerned that the issues relating to efficiency and conservation such a profound impact on this (please turn to page 10) Hostages We are glad to have our people back From their weird stay in hell T will be nice to see them on the street And know they are doing well. Let there be no rage against this land From which great blessings flow The very words which Jesus spoke On a mountain long ago. Came from this ancient land To his home in Galilee Where he told it straight and told it well For all the world to see. When boiling sap to make syrup The filth will rise in scum The tender then must skim it off If he would have good syrup come. The people of this sorry land areon the boil And have been for some time. There is no one yet to skim the filth They are still trapped beneath the slime. Or a second hand chamber pot With a bad crack in the handle. Dmald Darling More gro Hosmer Brothers hed i Ryegate Granite has been the major industry in Ryegate for many years. In early times, probably beginning in the 1790"s, Blue Mountain was .a great source of granite, bdh for home use and as a "cash crop". Around 1800, Vermont officials proposed building the state prison in Ryeate, so that the prisoners could work at quarrying, bt there was some degree of local oP- position, so the prison was located in Windsor -- and the prisoners did their quarrying on Mount Ascutney.. Never- tbeless, the prison was built with granite from Ryegate, which gave considerable employment to the Scottish settlers, many of whom were experienced stonecutters. When the church in Barnet Center was built in 1829, they used great slabs of granite from Blue Mountain for the steps 40 feet long, 8 inches wide, and S inches thick. For transporting, they each had to be cut into three pieces, then fitted back together in front of the church, where they still stand today, solid asever. The Ryegate granite industry was greatly in- creased by the demand for monuments and gravestones after the Civil War -- then increased further when the Montpelier & Wells River Railroad was built through town. Ever since that time, there have been stonesheds next to the railroad track in South Ryegate (although the track has since been taken up), Around 1900 there were over 300 men employed in Ryegatets quarries and stenesheds. Miller and Wells' History of Ryegate has a detailed account of several quarries in the town of Ryegate and their history of ownership. The largest operation was that of Martin Gibson. who also owned at various times a large stoneshed, a paper mill, a brickyard, a gristmill, and a hotel. Mr. Gibson bought his first quarry in 1891, soon added another, and eventually was shipping granite to nearly every state in the Union. He was the first in Ryegate to use steam equipment at his quarries. Recollections Orman Benton, a native of South Ryegate, remembers that when he was a child only four years old. the blacksmith the east side of the shop was right over the brow It was ver of the hill from his house, up new quarries, Whenever he got a chance he enough to get to would head down there, go in stuff", and the back door, and climb up equipment into the loft. From there he derricks, could look down and see the. houses. huge teams of horses  wild for keeping Western horses -- and the wagon wls which were six feet tall;-with great wide iron tires He recalls that sometime later. Martin Gibson bought "Big Brute" a huge Mack truck with hard rubber tires and chain drive. Big Brute made everything else ob- solete. It went up the moun- tain and brought down great loads of stone. Leonard Mitchell used to drive it, The road from Ryegate up to the quarries is still called the Stone Rod. There used to be hoarding camps up at the quarries, but they are all gone now. Most of the quarry workers used to live  there. Orman Benton says his family was in the quarry business,during the 1920's, up on Blue Mountain, not far from Martin Gibson's quarry. The Beatons had several smaller quarries, including one that had been Rosas', on repaired and business went the Depression, started the Babbitt alloy ) carrying they the BeatOns business and sold remaining junk. Great blocks were left stood, there being no South 'for them, and there. Eventually the quarry, went out of too. It was sold. regained the early 1900's. It much to get the ground mountain, and could the deeper quarries All we can see tumbledown buildings, the (please Page 4-The Journal Opinion-January 28, 1981 inll i n r nil i i i AST PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc. ... Publisher of Journal II Opinion Weekly newspaper pvblllked in hedferd, Vermut. SvbKrlpflen rwtwt - Verment end New Hempskire - $9.00 er yeer; $6.00 fer six mentks; cut of stl - $12.00 per year end S7.00 fer six mentks; h#ler citizen tscm# $I.00. $eceml iels peslle peid ut Imdferd, Vermont 05033. PwbUmd by Nerlheelt PvbRlhin I Cempeny, Inc., P,O. lies 371, Ilmdferd. Robert F. Huminski President & Publisher pi ss Bradford  o 3'   Woodsvitle 802-222-5281 603-747-20 i 6 An Independent Newspaper u I Editorials d Showing a human face Rules are rules, but sometimes they have to give way to humanitarian considerations. That is why we applaud the Newbury School Board's recent ac- tion to extend the kindergarten bus run nine-tenths of a mile to the home of a child whose mother recently had a new baby. " The extension was based on the hardshil to the mother in walking the nearly one mile to meet her youngster getting off the bus. She would have had to either leave the infant at home alone, or carried it with her in the cold. The motion to make the exception to the bus schedule was made on the grounds of "health and safety" to mother and children. This is the kind of consideration that gives people confidence in their elected and appointed officials, and gives those officials an opportunity to show a very human face. Let us hope we never live in a system so rigid that it can't make exceptions to the rules when there is good and sufficient reason. Free at last At last the hostages are out of Iran captors. and on their way home to welcoming families and fellow Citizens, thanks to Reagan's handling of the hostages issue, in our opinion, scored him a former incoming President Ronald Reagan. It showed that, unlike the present government in Iran, ours is a process of peaceful political government where the losers and winners still cooperate in matters of overriding national importance, instead of tearing their country apart in fac- tional feuding. If the Iranians could get over their self-indulgent jeering at the United States and the hapless hostages long enough, they might take a lesson from that, and from the quiet dignity with which their captives endured 444 days of illegal captivity--but we doubt they will. There is plenty of time for arguing over whether we should have allowed ourselves to be blackmailed into the conditions of the hostages' release and whether the conditions are bin. ding under U.S. and international law, but we think Presidents Carter and Reagan acted in good faith and the important thing is that our diplomats are free of their twisted, tormenting of President--he let it be known that he wasn't about to negotiate with those Iranian "barbarians," and thus they had better not wait for him to tackle the issue. Fearing they would get a far worse deal under Reagan than they had already extracted from Carter, the Iranians finally did the sensible thing and let our people go. One final, thing: it has been suggested by a number of newspapers that after more than 14 months in the world limelight of press and television, we give the former hostages and their families some privacy to heal the wounds of their long ordeal without a TV camera or a news reporter parked at their door- step day and night. We think that's a good idea, too. They'll talk and write about their experiences soon enough, when they're ready. To the hostages and their,families, we join the rest of the nation in saying, "Well done," under ex- tremely trying circumstances, and "welcome home." Congressional Report James M. Jeffords In the final days before the release of the American hostages in Iran. I had the unique opportunity to view first hand a side of the story which has not been widely reported by the media. Fulfilling my commitment as a Naval Reserve officer, I spent the two weeks prior to the hostage release aboard the USS Rangier. an air- craft carrier in the trea of the Persian Gulf. America's military presence in the Gulf consists of battle groups manned by thousands of young Americans, including many Vermonters They provided the backdrop and the clout behind the negotiations which ultimately succeeded in freeing the hostages. These young men, serving under the most difficult of circumstances, are the unsung heroes of the hostage drama. Many had been aboard ship for more than 150 days, working t2-hour days, seven days a week. The constant presence of military planes and ships from the Soviet Union and other nations serve as a constant reminder that they are in the area of the greatest international tension in the world today. The average age of these men is 19, and they have been working to the point of exhaustion. My initial concern was with their morale. I spokewith as many of them as possible, including 22 Vermonters, and am pleased to report that their morale is exceptionally high. They recognize the importance of their mission. But many wondered if anybody really cared. They wanted assurance that fellow Americans knew they were there, and why. I am contacting the families of the 22 Vermonters. and am releasing their names to the news media. These men deserve to be honored alongside the other heroes of "the hostage crisis: the U.S. negotiators, the "Algerian intermediaries, and of course the hostages themselves. At the same time. it should be un- derstood that there were two other factors in the resolution of the crisis, factors which have nothing to do with heroism. They are the war between Iran and Iraq and the deadline imposed by the inauguration in the U.S. The war obviously made Iran more vulnerable to the economic sanctions by the U.S. and to the implied threat of limited military action. Beyond the well publicized shortage of spare parts, Iran has become increasingly dependent upon shipping activity at its two open ports. Vital supplies continue to come in from other nations, including some which are not overtly friendly to Iran's cause. Meanwhile. Iran's economy is kept alive by continued sale of approximately a million barrels of oil per day off Kark Island. In that context, it has long been clear that the U.S. had the option of setting a deadline for release of the hostages, and enforcing it by outlining specific actions greatly increasing economic pressure. The third, to be carried odt only if the hostages were endangered, would be to undermine the Iranian Air Force by knocking out radar control st ations. Such actions would be devastating to Iran. economically and militarily in its war against Iraq, without any U.S aggression against the people of lran. No American would want to carry out such threats. But the knowledge that our nation had the option of setting a deadline and enforcing it. without direct aggression against the Iranian people, provided the only real clout we had at the bargaining table. Without such a deadline, the Iranians clearly were prepared to drag out the crisis interminably. They even bypassed the deadline which could have been worked to their greatest advantage politically : the U.S. election. The deadline ultimately accepted by the Iranians was set by events, not by initiatives of the Carter Administration. The Iranians perceived that the new Administration would be less reluctant to use the threat of limited military action as a bargaining chip, and that they could get a better deal before that chip was laid on the table than afterward. The deadline, therefore, was the inauguration. As it turned out, the role of the thousands of young Americans manning the battle groups in the Persian Gulf was only an implied factor in the success of the negotiations. But there is no question about the importance of their mission, and their contribution to" the success of the negotiations. Without their dedicated service to their nation under the most difficult of circumstances, the hostages would not have been freed. EDITOR'S NOTE: Attached is a list of Vermonters with whom Congressman Jeffords met. It should be emphasized that many other Vermonters are serving in the Gulf area, on ships other than the three which the congressman had the op portunity to visit. USS RANGER Robert E. Jones Richard Bowen James Royer Michael Gray Clyde Cain George Pritchard Dennis Fnss Bellows Falls. Vermont Newbury, Vermont St. Alhans, Vermont Barre, Vermont Wilmington, Vermont Rutland, Vermont St. Johnstmry, Vermont USS INDEPENDENCE William Bradley Steven clokey Brian McAviney Richard Hughes Kevin Blanchard Ed Hayward Chris tlame] Tony Sykes Dean Derby Plainfield, Vermont Fairfax, Vermont Colchester, Vermont Poultney, Vermont Proctor. Vermont Chester. Vermont St. Albans. Vermont Barre, Vermont Grand Isle, Vermont The first such action would most likely have been mmmg of the harbor where Iranian warships are parked, neutralizing the Iranians' threat to mine the Oman Straights. The second would likely have been mining of the harbor where oil is sold, Andrew Hurley Bennington, Vermont Mike Poche Vermont USS NIAGRA FALLS Robert St. John Barre, Vermont Frank Conover St. Johnsbury Executive Councilor Raymond S. Burton This is my first report to you in my second term as Councilor for our large north country district. It is an honor to be serving you as councilor. I know that we will not always agree on everything because the purpose of the council is to. bring five additional elected voices with votes to the executive branch of govern- ment. However. I hope you will be in touch with me from time to time about your concerns, I plan to write this column and send it to newspapers in the district each week to attempt to keep .you informed of some of the events that surround my role as your councilor. I will also be asking guest columnists to write for us about once per month. The first activity that took place on January 8th the inaugural day was a coffee hour in honor of persons who had run for the council from our large district. Lyle Hersom of Groveton and Robert Crowley of Plymouth were in attendance along with sbme tS0 other individuals from the north country area. Official state ceremonies took place in the State House and started when my own Representative Nelson Chamberlin of Bath (among others) escorted the Council into the House of Representatives. At this time I joined Malcolm McLane of Concord, Dudley Dudley of Durham, Louis Georgopolus of Manchester, and Bernard Streeter of Nashua in taking the oath of office. It is an oath that I believe very, strongly in and would like to share it with you -- "I Raymond S. Burton, do solemnly swear, that I will bear faith and true allegiance to the United States of America and the State of New Hampshire and will support the constitution thereof, so Held me God. I (please turn to page tO) U.S. Senate Report Gordon J. Humphrey During the past few years, two of the most over-worked words in the English language -- right behind "I want" and "'O.K." --- have been "'energy crisis." For time. it seemed almost impossible to pick up a newspaper or turn on the news without learning of some new reason to fear the worst. Certainly everyone should agree that the United States has become dangerously dependent on increasingly expensive and insecure sources of energy. But the news media went even further and contributed to the hysteria that we are actually running out of energy. This is simply not true. In a.recent report, seven members of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources concluded that the United States has tremendous resources of energy, but the federal government has prevented all but a fraction of these from being developed. Consider. for starters, that the federal governnent owns one-third of the nation's lands, which contain 70 per cent of all western coal resources. 85 per cent of the total oil resources. 85 per cent of all high- grade tar sands. 80 per cent of domestic oil shale resources, 40 per cent of natural gas supplies and a significant portion of our uranium and geothermal resource base. Unfortunately, most of these public lands have simply been locked up, so no development is taking place. The Department of Interior, for example. estimates U.S. reserves of coal at more than 430 billion short tons. an amount sufficient to last several hundred years. even at accelerated rates of utilization. But less than one per cent of all federal coal lands are currently under lease, and leasing has been at a virtual standstill since 1971. Similarly, a Library of Congress study printed by the Energy Committee notes that the oil shale reserves located in just three Western states "contain the equivalent of 600 billion barrels of oil. an amount that approximates the known world reserves of oil." government's total program for leasing to date consists of devel just two tracts. Well, you might be wondering, development of these lands, even ducted in a responsible way, threaten our environment? Not realize that what the Carter ministration locked up amounts than 200 million acres above and all the beautiful scenic wilderness areas already set protection and preservation by It's also worth noting that only cent of the U.S. Outer Continental currently under oil lease, but numscule portion provides more per cent of domestic oil nearly 26 per cent of natural production Finally, if the United States running out of energy, it is curious U.S. oil industry is drilling precedented rates, and, most im finding large new reserves of This surge in drilling results incentives provided by partial crude oil and natural gas. and it is expected to intensify in the bottom line, according to the members, is that: "These additions and gas reserves have decline in total reserves, and by thee 1985 we believe that the United well see additions to reserves consumption.'" So just think: if we can accom this with most of our energy still just imagine what we can do government actually begins production again. Thankfully, the works and some of the leading have stopped ignoring these their reporting of late is much balanced It's becoming again to emphasize the positive. Vermont Senate Notebook Scudder H. Parker What is black and white, about one foot tall, and weighs about 15 pounds? Why, of course, it is the stack o! reports a "new legislator has to read in order to get some kind of grasp on what all the different agencies, standing committees, and other officials are doing in state government. It is tempting to slip into a lecture about too much paper being generated with wordy reports, but that wouldn't be entirely fair. There is a great deal of learning for us to do. sidered and did not consider when they made their recommendations for shifting out of the highway fund and into the general fund "certain functions not directly related to highway construction, maintenance . . " that is, programs having to do with'other means of tran- sportation, public safety, driver education, and a number of others. It is also helpful to know how different members of the committee disagreed with the recom- mendations and what alternatives they propose. Do you remember what the first few weeks of high school were like? Well. there is a lot of similarityn being a "freshman" legislator, as the term implies. First. the level of study is higher. There are subjects you don't know much about. While everyone else in (for instance) the Senate Education Committee (which I am on) seems to know what EGL (Equalized Grand List) ADM (Average. Daily. Membership), District Multiplier (for which I still don't have a ono-line definition) mean, I am in the situation of asking the "dumb" questions, like "Would you stop and explain that please?" It is comforting to learn, though, that when you do ask the questions, others will often listen pretty carefully to the an- swers. I guess we all need a refresher course once in a while, and maybe "fresh- men" can help provide it. Another level on which you feel like a "freshman" has to do with the personal and social relations--with all the un- written things you have to believe me. the stack, of things to learn is as high as the written reports. My first day, the Education Committee, I the Legislative Council office tw actually get drafted, work gets done) had taken off my mittee room. and when I asked the to xerox the bill she said "OK you'd better put this are_ office." It took me realize what she meant, and Soule, the head of the Education mittee pointed out that it is an rule that Senators always wear a coat. So if you are in a sweater, you be an aide ! Getting to know people is just portant as getting to know all the This does not mean that "who is more mportant than "what but it is a reality of the political that good ideas do not just pop form of effective laws. A majority 180 lawmakers have to support and more importantly, at many points along the way, one or dividuals will have over the direction of a legislation. It s corn basically, I think, right that a be .hammered, bent, di added to by lots d experience and becoming law. with few months to see if I still think so! The other committee I serve on Senate Energy and Natural committee, which deals game issues in addition to its title. It is chaired by Senator of Windsor. and is a very exciting mittee to he on. I am cerned that the issues relating to efficiency and conservation such a profound impact on this (please turn to page 10) Hostages We are glad to have our people back From their weird stay in hell T will be nice to see them on the street And know they are doing well. Let there be no rage against this land From which great blessings flow The very words which Jesus spoke On a mountain long ago. Came from this ancient land To his home in Galilee Where he told it straight and told it well For all the world to see. When boiling sap to make syrup The filth will rise in scum The tender then must skim it off If he would have good syrup come. The people of this sorry land areon the boil And have been for some time. There is no one yet to skim the filth They are still trapped beneath the slime. Or a second hand chamber pot With a bad crack in the handle. Dmald Darling More gro Hosmer Brothers hed i Ryegate Granite has been the major industry in Ryegate for many years. In early times, probably beginning in the 1790"s, Blue Mountain was .a great source of granite, bdh for home use and as a "cash crop". Around 1800, Vermont officials proposed building the state prison in Ryeate, so that the prisoners could work at quarrying, bt there was some degree of local oP- position, so the prison was located in Windsor -- and the prisoners did their quarrying on Mount Ascutney.. Never- tbeless, the prison was built with granite from Ryegate, which gave considerable employment to the Scottish settlers, many of whom were experienced stonecutters. When the church in Barnet Center was built in 1829, they used great slabs of granite from Blue Mountain for the steps 40 feet long, 8 inches wide, and S inches thick. For transporting, they each had to be cut into three pieces, then fitted back together in front of the church, where they still stand today, solid asever. The Ryegate granite industry was greatly in- creased by the demand for monuments and gravestones after the Civil War -- then increased further when the Montpelier & Wells River Railroad was built through town. Ever since that time, there have been stonesheds next to the railroad track in South Ryegate (although the track has since been taken up), Around 1900 there were over 300 men employed in Ryegatets quarries and stenesheds. Miller and Wells' History of Ryegate has a detailed account of several quarries in the town of Ryegate and their history of ownership. The largest operation was that of Martin Gibson. who also owned at various times a large stoneshed, a paper mill, a brickyard, a gristmill, and a hotel. Mr. Gibson bought his first quarry in 1891, soon added another, and eventually was shipping granite to nearly every state in the Union. He was the first in Ryegate to use steam equipment at his quarries. Recollections Orman Benton, a native of South Ryegate, remembers that when he was a child only four years old. the blacksmith the east side of the shop was right over the brow It was ver of the hill from his house, up new quarries, Whenever he got a chance he enough to get to would head down there, go in stuff", and the back door, and climb up equipment into the loft. From there he derricks, could look down and see the. houses. huge teams of horses  wild for keeping Western horses -- and the wagon wls which were six feet tall;-with great wide iron tires He recalls that sometime later. Martin Gibson bought "Big Brute" a huge Mack truck with hard rubber tires and chain drive. Big Brute made everything else ob- solete. It went up the moun- tain and brought down great loads of stone. Leonard Mitchell used to drive it, The road from Ryegate up to the quarries is still called the Stone Rod. There used to be hoarding camps up at the quarries, but they are all gone now. Most of the quarry workers used to live  there. Orman Benton says his family was in the quarry business,during the 1920's, up on Blue Mountain, not far from Martin Gibson's quarry. The Beatons had several smaller quarries, including one that had been Rosas', on repaired and business went the Depression, started the Babbitt alloy ) carrying they the BeatOns business and sold remaining junk. Great blocks were left stood, there being no South 'for them, and there. Eventually the quarry, went out of too. It was sold. regained the early 1900's. It much to get the ground mountain, and could the deeper quarries All we can see tumbledown buildings, the (please