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Bradford , Vermont
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March 3, 1982     Journal Opinion
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. L Page @The Journal Opininn-March 3, r982 )RTHEAST PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc. Publisher of Journal i Opinion Woekl T memlml Ildslll/b kldfrd, Vmrmat. SlbIcriptb| tit*! - Vermut end Now imqnkkro $9.00 pe 1reef; $6.00 for six neolo; evt of ite $1.00 per Tier lind $7.00 fer oil nentks; SRter citizen dlx $I.N. Secud ckls lso  mt |mdhi. Yermt 0Sg]3. P,ldked bT N,k0t PHsk Cemlmay. IK.. P.O. hz |Ill, Imdfd. / , ,/r, ,  f-- . Papermakin00 ....... in Nt Rye00ate {Part 2)" workers hollering at their bedded in the rock --probably Robert F. Huminski President & Publisher Bradford /.  ; Woodsville 802-222-5281 % .  603-747-2016 An Independent Newspaper 00._Editorial ,ll.i Facin00 the issues We would like to state our support of the article appearing on the warning for the Town of Haverhill's annual meeting that, in part, calls for the formation of an independent com- mittee to study current budget issues. In concept, such a committee would be given the task of developing concrete suggestions on ways to curb increases in the town's budget in the years to come. The selectmen in the Town of Haverhill are exhibiting a great deal of foresight in initiating such a project. This year, the town is facing only a small budget increase (I.3 percent) over last year but taxes are continuing to climb because of losses in revenue. Haverhill's estimated seven per- cent tax increase figure for this year is still lower than many area towns are expecting. Some municipal governments might even be content with a seven percent tax increase, reserving their de4ates for other issues. But in Haverhill, the budget and revenue dilemma is recognized as a long-range problem that needs to be faced without procrastination. Putting the study committee in the hands of volunteer citizens is another fine idea. Hopefully, such a com- mittee can receive the support and participation that it deserves. One other interesting development regarding New Hampshire local politics should not go without men- tion. In the Town of Wentworth, a bright and ambitious 21 year old businessman is running for select- man. The young man, Michael Johnson, is said to have already been active on a number of town committees and appears to be nothing if not a serious candidate for the selectman's position. We cannot help but applaud Johnson's concern and interest in local government. Regardless of the outcome of this. year's election, Johnson has shown us that his generation will be spoken for. (Last week we gave the early history of the Ryegate Paper Company, and continue here with personal recollections of a longtime employee.) Reminiscences of WilHam Wallace William Wallace of East Ryegate is known nowadays throughout the region as a landscape artist, but before his retirement he worked for 45 years at the paper mill in East Ryegate. He has always lived here, in fact his gran- dfather, C. M. Wallace, sold land to Ray Farwell in 1905 for the paper mill. C. M. Wallace was a Civil War veteran, having enlisted at the age of 15 by lying about his age, to substitute for his brother. Sometime later, be became the first postmaster for the village of East Ryegate. His house (which was later used as a boardinghouse) was across from the mill, and the barn was up on the hill where Russell Bullard now lives. Years before, when the railroad was being built through the Wallace farm, a granite underpass was built for the cows, and is still there. When the paper mill was being built, everything was done by hand, mostly by a crew of Italians froth southern Italy, laborers who would work for very low wages. They used to live in little shacks and would come to the Wallace farm to buy bags of straw for sleeping on. Some of them had big earrings in their ears. The men used to put a long loaf of Italian bread inside their shirt-fronts when they came to work, then pull it up and chew off a little whenever they were hungry. One workman was killed during the construction of the mill, when a plank on which he was walking tipped under his feet, and he fell 60 feet into a water-filled pit. Bricks for the mill were made right here in the village at Gibson's brickyard -- very hard bricks with a shiny surface. Bill Wallace says his mother used to tell about hearing the brickyard . Newbury Town Meeting (continued from page 1 ) the selectmen to authorize the In his presentation to the the warrant "to see if the town village trustees to reconstruct meeting, State Representative will vote a sum not to exceed the grass verge along Chapel John Zampieri said that two $1600 to put in approximately Street with appropriate shade state bridge construction 108 linear feet of granite trees, at no cost to the projects are planned for curbing on Chapel Street village." Newbury. One is to widen the alongside Town Clerk's The voters moved to raise road and replace the un- Office." by taxes $100,080 for the town derground tube on Route 5 by Kenneth Rower spoke for account. This was upfrom the the Russell Carson farm the article, "What we're $60,080 raised last year. The turnoff. talking about is preserving the only item of discussion was to The state will spend an grass strip. We candothatby include $300 to go to the estimated $200,000. The other planting trees to replace those Baldwin Memorial Library in is a major replacement of the formerly lining the street, or Wells River, commending bridge over the railroad by putting in curbing. It their levelof activity, tracks on Route 5 in Newbury doesp' t change the width of An amount of $156,000 was Village by the Oxbow Road anything, it just preserves it." voted to be raised by taxes for turn-off. This 1927 bridge has The townspeople voted not the highway account. This weight limit and structural to expend the $1600 for granite account will also have problems. Construction will curbing. Under "other available $26,000 from the begin early 1984 at an business", the motion was state in payment for washout estimated cost of $1,000,080 to made and missed "to instruct damages. $1,250,000. & NEWBURY SKI MEET-- Young skflers from the Newbury area competed in a ski tournament last Sunday. The event, which included slalom and downhill skiing, was Slmmsored by the Newlmry Athletic and Recreation committee. Final results of the meet will be published in next week's Journal Opinion along with additional pictures. The Revenue Sharing Budget included the following items: -- $12,000 will be ex- pended to trade in the present three-year old dump truck for a new one, and $1750 for five radio units for the highway department. -- $500 will purchase a used tank truck for the Newbury Village Fire Department to replace the 1953 army tanker presently used. -- The recreation ap- propriation was increased from $3500 to $3900, to cover increased swimming in- structor's salaries and costs of equipment. -- The Woodsville Ambulance Service was commended for its good service and low rates, and increased from $1080 to $1296. -- An allocation of $6000 was made to the grader fund which currently ha a balance of $27,182 including interest. An amount of $3600 was budgeted for Revenue Sharing auditors. The $4500 requested for dry hydrants was passed, but will not be expended until the selectmen verify the bill. The amount was budgeted to cover a bill for work already done. That is almost $1000 per hydrant. The budgeting committee did not appropriate $12,438/of anticipated 1982-83 Revenue sharing funds. Treasurer Elizabeth Vance expressed uncertainty whether these funds would ever be received by the town. Delores Drugash, Newbury school board chairman, requested that an amount up to $8000 be spent to refurbish the Town Hall. While the school maintains the building, and has repaired the roof and painted it; they requested help with wiring, insulation, heat- circulation fans, flooring, etc. There was then a discussion of "Who owus the Town Hall?" Carbee said, "When the responsibility for the Hall was transferred to the school district, it was in a different economic climate. The school district maintains the building. I think we should help them in this way with major capitol expenses." The $8000 was voted for the Town Hall repairs and $4438 for the Fire Department, with the condition "not to be ex- horses in French as they were turning the sweep to mix the clay. Jay Chamberlin was one of the teamsters for drawing bricks. There was a railroad spur into the brickyard for transporting the finished bricks, many of them going to St. Johnsbury, where they were used in building the store blocks on Railroad Street. The brickyard was in operation until around' 1915. One time while the paper mill was being built, a drifter came along looking for work. When they asked him whether he knew how to lay bricks, he said, "Well, some." So they handed him the tools and he went at it. In spite of his modesty, he turned out to be the nicest brickmason you ever saw -- he built most of the brick arches in the mill -- but after about a month his feet got itchy and he went into the office for his pay, then climbed up the railroad bank hy the boardinghouse and hopped the first freight. Another time there were two fellows working here named Dan Donahue and Jerry Nolan, who used to be in a circus. During the neonhours they would en- tertain the other men by doing acrobatics on the lawn outside the boardinghouse -- hand flips and all that -- then that summer a circus came to "Woodsville, and Dan and Jerry asked for the afternoon off to go to the circus -- and they never came back. When the paper mill dam was being built, they had to build a coffer dam to hold back the water where they were working. Bill's grand- father said that one of the men told the foreman that the water got pretty high here in the spring, but the foreman said he'd never seen a river yet that he couldn't handle. Just a few days later there came a heavy rain, and it tore the whole coffer dam right out. The paper mill dam was built of hardwood timbers and filled with stones, and in the middle of it there was a sluiceway for log drives. On the riverbanks there were hand-forged iron rings em- pended until received by the town. No allocations were requested for the town clerk's office, police protection, and zoning and planning -- as these all have unexpended funds from 1981. In the nuclear arms referendum, Newbury voted "yes" by a ballot vote of 75 to 42. In the only contested election in town, Frederick Cobb defeated Robert Titus for the office of selectman. . Corinth {continued from page 1 ) voters at the meeting decided to fix their town of. ficers' compensation at $4.00 per hour. Deciding not to elect a road commissioner, voters ex- pressed their concern over current troubles the town highway department has been having this year. Voters also defeated an article calling for the town to raise $27,000 for property reappraisal. The only other article reported to be defeated was one that called for $20,080 to pave the Eagle Hollow Road in the town. The article calling for a mutual United States - Soviet Union nuclear arms freeze was said to have passed. The state constitutional amendment regarding bail determination passed by a vote of 108 to 30. All other articles listed on the town's warning are reported to have passed. Town Officers The following townspeople were elected as town officers: Moderator, John Pierson; Town Clerk, Jack Learmonth; Selectman, Edward T. Eilersen; Lister, Sam Porter; Auditor, T. R. Jackson; School Director, Virginia Barlow; Cemetery Commissioner, Wayne Moulton; Tax Collector, Jack Learmonth; Town Agent, Norman Moulton; Grand Juror, Frank Choffel; Treasurer, Jack Learmonth; First Constable, Mervile Bruleigh; Second Constable, Kenneth Thom- pson; and Delinquent Tax Collector, Mervil Bruleigh. used for the canal built there in 1831, or for attaching booms for the log drives. Water for the mill and the village, in the beginning, was piped down from a dam up on Manchester Brook (Wilson Brook). Bill's mother used to cook at Charlie Wilson's farm for the men boarding there while they were building the cement dam in the brook (1910). They say that in the early settlement days, when Indian Joe came through here, he used to stop at this spot to rest, lying down on a rock overlooking the brook. Bill says that Manchester Brook used to come down in back of the store and into the river by Pauline Willis's, but when the railroad was built they changed its channel so it came straight down to the river, in back of where the mill was later built. Also, Route 5 used to follow the river from here to Wells River, but later was built higher up, where it is now. When the brick chimney was built at the mill (1917), the bricks were taken up in a basket by a little donkey engine. At that time, Bill's mother was again working at Wiisous', cooking for the crew that was building the chim- ney, and they teased her to ride up in the basket to the top of the chimney, but she wouldn't. The chimney eventually reached a height of 98 feet, with a ladder built up the inside of it, made of iron rods built right in with the bricks. Years later, when the mill was converted from coal to oil, it needed, and they built, a shorter, metal stack. About 15 years ago they hired Calkins from Danville to come down with a big derrick and take down the old brick chimney so they could salvage the brick in it -- but the crew had to give up because the mortar was so hard, and it looks today as though one big bite was taken out of the top of the chimney. They had better luck getting rid of a big old stump that was in the way, close to the mill office. They hooked a chain around it and pulled it out with a convenient nearby railroad engine. The engineer's name was Ossie Creaser. In 1923, Clarence Bedell sank an artesian well near his house for village and paper mill water. The water was pumped up by a windmill, but half the time either there was no wind, or something was broken down. Later the paper company bought the well and eventually installed an electric motor, which they are still using for mill and village water. Bill Wallace says that his first job when he started working for the mill around 1930 was digging a ditch for a pipe from the well to a reservoir up on the hill. Bill worked for ten years in the yard at the mill, han- dling pulpwood which local farmers and loggers had brought in. At that time he was getting 25 cents an hour, and thinking enviously of the men inside the mill that were earning way over 60 cents (a whole cent a minute! ). The mill used to grind its own pulp and prepare it for making paper, but about 20 years ago they stopped grinding their own and began using kraft stock and scrap from other mills. They used to be grinding pulp day and night, with quite a crew. For 35 years, Bill worked as a maintenance man at the mill, his duties including repairing the five water wheels {turbines). The water came into the raceway, then dropped down through the turbines, turning their fins or "buckets". The power thus created was up to 150 hor- sepower for each turbine, and was transmitted upward by a lO-inch vertical shaft to the crown gear (which weighed about 3 tons) in the floor above. When the men had to work on the turbines, they would drop the head gate to cut off the flow of water into the raceway. Of course the amount of waterpower available varied with the season. When the water was high in the spring it would back up from the Narrows and interfere with the raceway, and they would have to shut off the water- powered pulp grinders. At other times, there was a limit to how high they could add flashboards to their dam, because of the flooding it would cause upstream, or Letters to the Ed g00,hdm.00d to be To the Editor: The Governors' Association, speaking through its chair- man, Governor Snelling, opposes, to a degree, current efforts to restore some in- tegrity to the "dollar" and some good sense to federal- state-local government. A typical quote from a copyrighted (?) document, February 21st: "The President needs to stand before the Nation and tell us why child welfare should be cut by 15 percent, funding for learning and employment should be reduced by 44 percent, support for maternal and child health should be reduced by 18 percent." The governors choose to ignore the fact that the present administration is in no way demanding that those programs be cut by those or any other percentages. It is, however, proposing to Congress that states weigh the desirability and effectiveness of those programs and then, if they are endorsed, cover those 15 percent, 44 percent and 18 percent portions with real, fairly allocated state tax (or local) dollars. Surely it makes more sense for Vermont residents to support those programs, assuming the Legislature approves of them, through taxes on personal income, than for those same residents to pay a higher tax on income to the federal government and have it returned to Vermont in the form of federal aid. The alternative, of course, is for the programs to be totally "funded" by way of printing press "dollars" and inflation. Under this process, which dilutes the value of any previously issued "dollars",. "taxes" are levied only on. .those provident people who have sought to provide for. their own future by putting aside part of their earnings in! a savings account, a federal bond, an insurance policy, a credit union or whatever. It must be clear to Governor Snelling that Vermont's with- drawai from the federal is going to be painful. (That New Hampshires' withdrawal will be even more painful is scant consolation.) He must know recent prosperity has been deemed subsidized by federal welfare more effectively aid, federal education aid, and local federal housing aid, federal be funded at the dairy price supports, all, in with printing turn, "funded" through the expense printing press money people who had A heroic effort, sparked by provide for their the White House, is being setting aside made in Congress to restore earnings. some sanity to the nation's forces money out government patterns and to of savings its currency. The governors do the the nation no favor when they demand that certain programs, all of which, if A Woman's Point of View Life on the by FRAN HYDE "They don't huild them like they usoo m!" We're used to hearing this in reference to cars, and many other items, but in recent weeks thinking of it as applying to houses. This winter Arthur has been making provements at the old house in Bliss Hollow Built by one of the settling families, the house is oldest in town. Preparations for insulating revealed split the length of the room instead of the familiar timbers were used for floor i are six by eight's or larger. Actually these differences are not all that we discussed the house we were reminded house that we recently visited. at one time it was very common. In January when we a roadside sign advising of the be seen some miles ahead in Aline. When we driving past, we backed up and stopped. We had a sod house set in a hill in South Dakota and chance to see one on the fiat Oklahoma terrain. In December, 1963, the Oklahoma Historical acquired the building. The hostess told us able to get it ten years earlier it would have condition. Repairs were made as necessary building was constructed to enclose it. A nishings were from the house, but most were the times. There was a display of old and new few pieces of farm equipment were als( As the hostess took us through the small pointed to the windows of glass and said, must have been to come to a home with know most of the soddies had holes that open in and covered with oiled paper or blankets in The little house was probably rooms, a bedroom and a kitchen. Repairs to the house were obvious and the the buffalo grass has run out The following is from the pamphlet given to us: "Of the approximately one million sod dotted the vast plains region of North America, "soddie" constructed by Marshall McCnlly in the few still standing. that Vermont, thanks to "Taking part in the great "run" of Sept. 16, federal aid programs, h.as,, okeeOuU._wasedfor been living and "developing' acre claim was dmpute by way beyond its native competitors in the dash for homesteads. resources for many years. The McCully moved to what is now the southern same goes for many other "poor" states. Vermont's Fear @ an ugly word To the Editor: Fear. What an ugly word. "All we have to fear is fear itself." In Vermont it seems that phrase is unknown, unlearned, and untaught. Fear is ram- pant in this state when our officials from the Governor on down march like marionettes to the commands of the radicals in a safety drill around the safest power generating plant in the country, if not the world. Fear is rampant in this state when its citizens sign petitions and flock to the polls to vote to strip our nation of its defenses. How they must be laughing at these descendents of Ethan Allan and other brave Ver- mont heroes, and what great enjoyment these vermin must be having as they crawl into their burrows, dragging with them the corpses of Vermont's courage, honor, and bravery to feast on. I pray to the Lord to damn with me the word fear, and to drive from our midst they who preach it. All we need fear in this world is the wrath of God. Frank L. Cutler Bridport, Vt. interfering with the tailwater at the McIndoes dam. A 300-horsepower steam engine was used on the paper machine. One time it got out of control and the 12-ton flywheel went right through the roof, one half landing by the water tank and the other half clear across the river. Bill says you can still see a twisted roof girder where a piece of the flywheel hit it. (This was in 1907. It did about $20,000-worth of damage and kept the mill out of production for about a month.) The mill has made many kinds of paper through the years, but Bill says that for about 20 years their biggest order was for paper for Hershey candy bar wrappers, on which they spent 3 or 4 months every year. (to be continued) County and filed another ch house. "Living first in a "dug-out" one-room ravine bank, he built the more spacious in August, 1894. The soil on the immediate site to produce the necessary buffalo grass sod, found the material about one mile to the north. "The sod was removed with a sixteen-inch sodl turned the virgin prairie to a depth of about one half-acre would furnish of the house. The flat slabs were hauled to wagon. "The slabs produced by the plow and subsequently cut then laid in the same manner as are s made his walls the thickness of two slabs, 36 inches. No metal ( was used. "Though the floor was ori installed in 1895. "The roof was constructed by first ridgepole lengthwise adding semi-rafters of small, split house they were placed close together and them. Other sod house roofs i various t and brush or corn stalk la} "McCully was fortunate that his home was beds along Eagle Chief Creek and this clay-like material, mixed with water to of paste, he was able to plaster the interior as well as cover the sod on the roof after a hard rain produced many leaks. not that fortunate as most plaster material was not available, thus the unusual. "Ceiling covers were especially desirable annoying tendency of sod roofs to rain dirt, and insects on the occupants. To combat this, sewn together were commonly "Shortly after completing his "soddie," his bride to the claim and raised a family. The used by the McCuily family as a home from when a large, two-story frame house was built west of the sod structure. From that time on, was used for storage. The progression from house to permanent home was typical of development patterns of the area. "Because of the thickness and texture of roofs of sod houses, they were usually cool warm in winter. It was not expected that last very many years because sod is highly damage from the elements, especially wind temperature extremes. Few stood more than a "It is impossible to state definitely why remained standing long after most similar Great Plains had disappeared. Two ( may be connected with the home on the west and by a large elm tree next to on the south. "In spite of generally short life of structures was often, and in many places, the only available. As a result,  important contribution to the settlement c "Since obtaining the house in 1963, Historical Society has expended considerable to preserve and protect the structure, the condition when it was occupied. "It will be noted that in the McCully s  restoration materials are comparable to the oru [v.,.-_ be observed that the four outsi- de corners of tl 1. been rebuilt and that a new covering of sod has [)b . on the roof. The interior walls have been re- [ ' paint-like substance similar to that used by lg RV. 0 time of building. Furnishings are like those useU ,. '" during the McCnlly family occupancy, m ,4: ] "The last of its kind, this sod house rep_ leei step in the cultural development of Oklahoma ai lill j Yesindeed, theydon'tbuildthemliketheyuS" I --" . L Page @The Journal Opininn-March 3, r982 )RTHEAST PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc. Publisher of Journal i Opinion Woekl T memlml Ildslll/b kldfrd, Vmrmat. SlbIcriptb| tit*! - Vermut end Now imqnkkro $9.00 pe 1reef; $6.00 for six neolo; evt of ite $1.00 per Tier lind $7.00 fer oil nentks; SRter citizen dlx $I.N. Secud ckls lso  mt |mdhi. Yermt 0Sg]3. P,ldked bT N,k0t PHsk Cemlmay. IK.. P.O. hz |Ill, Imdfd. / , ,/r, ,  f-- . Papermakin00 ....... in Nt Rye00ate {Part 2)" workers hollering at their bedded in the rock --probably Robert F. Huminski President & Publisher Bradford /.  ; Woodsville 802-222-5281 % .  603-747-2016 An Independent Newspaper 00._Editorial ,ll.i Facin00 the issues We would like to state our support of the article appearing on the warning for the Town of Haverhill's annual meeting that, in part, calls for the formation of an independent com- mittee to study current budget issues. In concept, such a committee would be given the task of developing concrete suggestions on ways to curb increases in the town's budget in the years to come. The selectmen in the Town of Haverhill are exhibiting a great deal of foresight in initiating such a project. This year, the town is facing only a small budget increase (I.3 percent) over last year but taxes are continuing to climb because of losses in revenue. Haverhill's estimated seven per- cent tax increase figure for this year is still lower than many area towns are expecting. Some municipal governments might even be content with a seven percent tax increase, reserving their de4ates for other issues. But in Haverhill, the budget and revenue dilemma is recognized as a long-range problem that needs to be faced without procrastination. Putting the study committee in the hands of volunteer citizens is another fine idea. Hopefully, such a com- mittee can receive the support and participation that it deserves. One other interesting development regarding New Hampshire local politics should not go without men- tion. In the Town of Wentworth, a bright and ambitious 21 year old businessman is running for select- man. The young man, Michael Johnson, is said to have already been active on a number of town committees and appears to be nothing if not a serious candidate for the selectman's position. We cannot help but applaud Johnson's concern and interest in local government. Regardless of the outcome of this. year's election, Johnson has shown us that his generation will be spoken for. (Last week we gave the early history of the Ryegate Paper Company, and continue here with personal recollections of a longtime employee.) Reminiscences of WilHam Wallace William Wallace of East Ryegate is known nowadays throughout the region as a landscape artist, but before his retirement he worked for 45 years at the paper mill in East Ryegate. He has always lived here, in fact his gran- dfather, C. M. Wallace, sold land to Ray Farwell in 1905 for the paper mill. C. M. Wallace was a Civil War veteran, having enlisted at the age of 15 by lying about his age, to substitute for his brother. Sometime later, be became the first postmaster for the village of East Ryegate. His house (which was later used as a boardinghouse) was across from the mill, and the barn was up on the hill where Russell Bullard now lives. Years before, when the railroad was being built through the Wallace farm, a granite underpass was built for the cows, and is still there. When the paper mill was being built, everything was done by hand, mostly by a crew of Italians froth southern Italy, laborers who would work for very low wages. They used to live in little shacks and would come to the Wallace farm to buy bags of straw for sleeping on. Some of them had big earrings in their ears. The men used to put a long loaf of Italian bread inside their shirt-fronts when they came to work, then pull it up and chew off a little whenever they were hungry. One workman was killed during the construction of the mill, when a plank on which he was walking tipped under his feet, and he fell 60 feet into a water-filled pit. Bricks for the mill were made right here in the village at Gibson's brickyard -- very hard bricks with a shiny surface. Bill Wallace says his mother used to tell about hearing the brickyard . Newbury Town Meeting (continued from page 1 ) the selectmen to authorize the In his presentation to the the warrant "to see if the town village trustees to reconstruct meeting, State Representative will vote a sum not to exceed the grass verge along Chapel John Zampieri said that two $1600 to put in approximately Street with appropriate shade state bridge construction 108 linear feet of granite trees, at no cost to the projects are planned for curbing on Chapel Street village." Newbury. One is to widen the alongside Town Clerk's The voters moved to raise road and replace the un- Office." by taxes $100,080 for the town derground tube on Route 5 by Kenneth Rower spoke for account. This was upfrom the the Russell Carson farm the article, "What we're $60,080 raised last year. The turnoff. talking about is preserving the only item of discussion was to The state will spend an grass strip. We candothatby include $300 to go to the estimated $200,000. The other planting trees to replace those Baldwin Memorial Library in is a major replacement of the formerly lining the street, or Wells River, commending bridge over the railroad by putting in curbing. It their levelof activity, tracks on Route 5 in Newbury doesp' t change the width of An amount of $156,000 was Village by the Oxbow Road anything, it just preserves it." voted to be raised by taxes for turn-off. This 1927 bridge has The townspeople voted not the highway account. This weight limit and structural to expend the $1600 for granite account will also have problems. Construction will curbing. Under "other available $26,000 from the begin early 1984 at an business", the motion was state in payment for washout estimated cost of $1,000,080 to made and missed "to instruct damages. $1,250,000. & NEWBURY SKI MEET-- Young skflers from the Newbury area competed in a ski tournament last Sunday. The event, which included slalom and downhill skiing, was Slmmsored by the Newlmry Athletic and Recreation committee. Final results of the meet will be published in next week's Journal Opinion along with additional pictures. The Revenue Sharing Budget included the following items: -- $12,000 will be ex- pended to trade in the present three-year old dump truck for a new one, and $1750 for five radio units for the highway department. -- $500 will purchase a used tank truck for the Newbury Village Fire Department to replace the 1953 army tanker presently used. -- The recreation ap- propriation was increased from $3500 to $3900, to cover increased swimming in- structor's salaries and costs of equipment. -- The Woodsville Ambulance Service was commended for its good service and low rates, and increased from $1080 to $1296. -- An allocation of $6000 was made to the grader fund which currently ha a balance of $27,182 including interest. An amount of $3600 was budgeted for Revenue Sharing auditors. The $4500 requested for dry hydrants was passed, but will not be expended until the selectmen verify the bill. The amount was budgeted to cover a bill for work already done. That is almost $1000 per hydrant. The budgeting committee did not appropriate $12,438/of anticipated 1982-83 Revenue sharing funds. Treasurer Elizabeth Vance expressed uncertainty whether these funds would ever be received by the town. Delores Drugash, Newbury school board chairman, requested that an amount up to $8000 be spent to refurbish the Town Hall. While the school maintains the building, and has repaired the roof and painted it; they requested help with wiring, insulation, heat- circulation fans, flooring, etc. There was then a discussion of "Who owus the Town Hall?" Carbee said, "When the responsibility for the Hall was transferred to the school district, it was in a different economic climate. The school district maintains the building. I think we should help them in this way with major capitol expenses." The $8000 was voted for the Town Hall repairs and $4438 for the Fire Department, with the condition "not to be ex- horses in French as they were turning the sweep to mix the clay. Jay Chamberlin was one of the teamsters for drawing bricks. There was a railroad spur into the brickyard for transporting the finished bricks, many of them going to St. Johnsbury, where they were used in building the store blocks on Railroad Street. The brickyard was in operation until around' 1915. One time while the paper mill was being built, a drifter came along looking for work. When they asked him whether he knew how to lay bricks, he said, "Well, some." So they handed him the tools and he went at it. In spite of his modesty, he turned out to be the nicest brickmason you ever saw -- he built most of the brick arches in the mill -- but after about a month his feet got itchy and he went into the office for his pay, then climbed up the railroad bank hy the boardinghouse and hopped the first freight. Another time there were two fellows working here named Dan Donahue and Jerry Nolan, who used to be in a circus. During the neonhours they would en- tertain the other men by doing acrobatics on the lawn outside the boardinghouse -- hand flips and all that -- then that summer a circus came to "Woodsville, and Dan and Jerry asked for the afternoon off to go to the circus -- and they never came back. When the paper mill dam was being built, they had to build a coffer dam to hold back the water where they were working. Bill's grand- father said that one of the men told the foreman that the water got pretty high here in the spring, but the foreman said he'd never seen a river yet that he couldn't handle. Just a few days later there came a heavy rain, and it tore the whole coffer dam right out. The paper mill dam was built of hardwood timbers and filled with stones, and in the middle of it there was a sluiceway for log drives. On the riverbanks there were hand-forged iron rings em- pended until received by the town. No allocations were requested for the town clerk's office, police protection, and zoning and planning -- as these all have unexpended funds from 1981. In the nuclear arms referendum, Newbury voted "yes" by a ballot vote of 75 to 42. In the only contested election in town, Frederick Cobb defeated Robert Titus for the office of selectman. . Corinth {continued from page 1 ) voters at the meeting decided to fix their town of. ficers' compensation at $4.00 per hour. Deciding not to elect a road commissioner, voters ex- pressed their concern over current troubles the town highway department has been having this year. Voters also defeated an article calling for the town to raise $27,000 for property reappraisal. The only other article reported to be defeated was one that called for $20,080 to pave the Eagle Hollow Road in the town. The article calling for a mutual United States - Soviet Union nuclear arms freeze was said to have passed. The state constitutional amendment regarding bail determination passed by a vote of 108 to 30. All other articles listed on the town's warning are reported to have passed. Town Officers The following townspeople were elected as town officers: Moderator, John Pierson; Town Clerk, Jack Learmonth; Selectman, Edward T. Eilersen; Lister, Sam Porter; Auditor, T. R. Jackson; School Director, Virginia Barlow; Cemetery Commissioner, Wayne Moulton; Tax Collector, Jack Learmonth; Town Agent, Norman Moulton; Grand Juror, Frank Choffel; Treasurer, Jack Learmonth; First Constable, Mervile Bruleigh; Second Constable, Kenneth Thom- pson; and Delinquent Tax Collector, Mervil Bruleigh. used for the canal built there in 1831, or for attaching booms for the log drives. Water for the mill and the village, in the beginning, was piped down from a dam up on Manchester Brook (Wilson Brook). Bill's mother used to cook at Charlie Wilson's farm for the men boarding there while they were building the cement dam in the brook (1910). They say that in the early settlement days, when Indian Joe came through here, he used to stop at this spot to rest, lying down on a rock overlooking the brook. Bill says that Manchester Brook used to come down in back of the store and into the river by Pauline Willis's, but when the railroad was built they changed its channel so it came straight down to the river, in back of where the mill was later built. Also, Route 5 used to follow the river from here to Wells River, but later was built higher up, where it is now. When the brick chimney was built at the mill (1917), the bricks were taken up in a basket by a little donkey engine. At that time, Bill's mother was again working at Wiisous', cooking for the crew that was building the chim- ney, and they teased her to ride up in the basket to the top of the chimney, but she wouldn't. The chimney eventually reached a height of 98 feet, with a ladder built up the inside of it, made of iron rods built right in with the bricks. Years later, when the mill was converted from coal to oil, it needed, and they built, a shorter, metal stack. About 15 years ago they hired Calkins from Danville to come down with a big derrick and take down the old brick chimney so they could salvage the brick in it -- but the crew had to give up because the mortar was so hard, and it looks today as though one big bite was taken out of the top of the chimney. They had better luck getting rid of a big old stump that was in the way, close to the mill office. They hooked a chain around it and pulled it out with a convenient nearby railroad engine. The engineer's name was Ossie Creaser. In 1923, Clarence Bedell sank an artesian well near his house for village and paper mill water. The water was pumped up by a windmill, but half the time either there was no wind, or something was broken down. Later the paper company bought the well and eventually installed an electric motor, which they are still using for mill and village water. Bill Wallace says that his first job when he started working for the mill around 1930 was digging a ditch for a pipe from the well to a reservoir up on the hill. Bill worked for ten years in the yard at the mill, han- dling pulpwood which local farmers and loggers had brought in. At that time he was getting 25 cents an hour, and thinking enviously of the men inside the mill that were earning way over 60 cents (a whole cent a minute! ). The mill used to grind its own pulp and prepare it for making paper, but about 20 years ago they stopped grinding their own and began using kraft stock and scrap from other mills. They used to be grinding pulp day and night, with quite a crew. For 35 years, Bill worked as a maintenance man at the mill, his duties including repairing the five water wheels {turbines). The water came into the raceway, then dropped down through the turbines, turning their fins or "buckets". The power thus created was up to 150 hor- sepower for each turbine, and was transmitted upward by a lO-inch vertical shaft to the crown gear (which weighed about 3 tons) in the floor above. When the men had to work on the turbines, they would drop the head gate to cut off the flow of water into the raceway. Of course the amount of waterpower available varied with the season. When the water was high in the spring it would back up from the Narrows and interfere with the raceway, and they would have to shut off the water- powered pulp grinders. At other times, there was a limit to how high they could add flashboards to their dam, because of the flooding it would cause upstream, or Letters to the Ed g00,hdm.00d to be To the Editor: The Governors' Association, speaking through its chair- man, Governor Snelling, opposes, to a degree, current efforts to restore some in- tegrity to the "dollar" and some good sense to federal- state-local government. A typical quote from a copyrighted (?) document, February 21st: "The President needs to stand before the Nation and tell us why child welfare should be cut by 15 percent, funding for learning and employment should be reduced by 44 percent, support for maternal and child health should be reduced by 18 percent." The governors choose to ignore the fact that the present administration is in no way demanding that those programs be cut by those or any other percentages. It is, however, proposing to Congress that states weigh the desirability and effectiveness of those programs and then, if they are endorsed, cover those 15 percent, 44 percent and 18 percent portions with real, fairly allocated state tax (or local) dollars. Surely it makes more sense for Vermont residents to support those programs, assuming the Legislature approves of them, through taxes on personal income, than for those same residents to pay a higher tax on income to the federal government and have it returned to Vermont in the form of federal aid. The alternative, of course, is for the programs to be totally "funded" by way of printing press "dollars" and inflation. Under this process, which dilutes the value of any previously issued "dollars",. "taxes" are levied only on. .those provident people who have sought to provide for. their own future by putting aside part of their earnings in! a savings account, a federal bond, an insurance policy, a credit union or whatever. It must be clear to Governor Snelling that Vermont's with- drawai from the federal is going to be painful. (That New Hampshires' withdrawal will be even more painful is scant consolation.) He must know recent prosperity has been deemed subsidized by federal welfare more effectively aid, federal education aid, and local federal housing aid, federal be funded at the dairy price supports, all, in with printing turn, "funded" through the expense printing press money people who had A heroic effort, sparked by provide for their the White House, is being setting aside made in Congress to restore earnings. some sanity to the nation's forces money out government patterns and to of savings its currency. The governors do the the nation no favor when they demand that certain programs, all of which, if A Woman's Point of View Life on the by FRAN HYDE "They don't huild them like they usoo m!" We're used to hearing this in reference to cars, and many other items, but in recent weeks thinking of it as applying to houses. This winter Arthur has been making provements at the old house in Bliss Hollow Built by one of the settling families, the house is oldest in town. Preparations for insulating revealed split the length of the room instead of the familiar timbers were used for floor i are six by eight's or larger. Actually these differences are not all that we discussed the house we were reminded house that we recently visited. at one time it was very common. In January when we a roadside sign advising of the be seen some miles ahead in Aline. When we driving past, we backed up and stopped. We had a sod house set in a hill in South Dakota and chance to see one on the fiat Oklahoma terrain. In December, 1963, the Oklahoma Historical acquired the building. The hostess told us able to get it ten years earlier it would have condition. Repairs were made as necessary building was constructed to enclose it. A nishings were from the house, but most were the times. There was a display of old and new few pieces of farm equipment were als( As the hostess took us through the small pointed to the windows of glass and said, must have been to come to a home with know most of the soddies had holes that open in and covered with oiled paper or blankets in The little house was probably rooms, a bedroom and a kitchen. Repairs to the house were obvious and the the buffalo grass has run out The following is from the pamphlet given to us: "Of the approximately one million sod dotted the vast plains region of North America, "soddie" constructed by Marshall McCnlly in the few still standing. that Vermont, thanks to "Taking part in the great "run" of Sept. 16, federal aid programs, h.as,, okeeOuU._wasedfor been living and "developing' acre claim was dmpute by way beyond its native competitors in the dash for homesteads. resources for many years. The McCully moved to what is now the southern same goes for many other "poor" states. Vermont's Fear @ an ugly word To the Editor: Fear. What an ugly word. "All we have to fear is fear itself." In Vermont it seems that phrase is unknown, unlearned, and untaught. Fear is ram- pant in this state when our officials from the Governor on down march like marionettes to the commands of the radicals in a safety drill around the safest power generating plant in the country, if not the world. Fear is rampant in this state when its citizens sign petitions and flock to the polls to vote to strip our nation of its defenses. How they must be laughing at these descendents of Ethan Allan and other brave Ver- mont heroes, and what great enjoyment these vermin must be having as they crawl into their burrows, dragging with them the corpses of Vermont's courage, honor, and bravery to feast on. I pray to the Lord to damn with me the word fear, and to drive from our midst they who preach it. All we need fear in this world is the wrath of God. Frank L. Cutler Bridport, Vt. interfering with the tailwater at the McIndoes dam. A 300-horsepower steam engine was used on the paper machine. One time it got out of control and the 12-ton flywheel went right through the roof, one half landing by the water tank and the other half clear across the river. Bill says you can still see a twisted roof girder where a piece of the flywheel hit it. (This was in 1907. It did about $20,000-worth of damage and kept the mill out of production for about a month.) The mill has made many kinds of paper through the years, but Bill says that for about 20 years their biggest order was for paper for Hershey candy bar wrappers, on which they spent 3 or 4 months every year. (to be continued) County and filed another ch house. "Living first in a "dug-out" one-room ravine bank, he built the more spacious in August, 1894. The soil on the immediate site to produce the necessary buffalo grass sod, found the material about one mile to the north. "The sod was removed with a sixteen-inch sodl turned the virgin prairie to a depth of about one half-acre would furnish of the house. The flat slabs were hauled to wagon. "The slabs produced by the plow and subsequently cut then laid in the same manner as are s made his walls the thickness of two slabs, 36 inches. No metal ( was used. "Though the floor was ori installed in 1895. "The roof was constructed by first ridgepole lengthwise adding semi-rafters of small, split house they were placed close together and them. Other sod house roofs i various t and brush or corn stalk la} "McCully was fortunate that his home was beds along Eagle Chief Creek and this clay-like material, mixed with water to of paste, he was able to plaster the interior as well as cover the sod on the roof after a hard rain produced many leaks. not that fortunate as most plaster material was not available, thus the unusual. "Ceiling covers were especially desirable annoying tendency of sod roofs to rain dirt, and insects on the occupants. To combat this, sewn together were commonly "Shortly after completing his "soddie," his bride to the claim and raised a family. The used by the McCuily family as a home from when a large, two-story frame house was built west of the sod structure. From that time on, was used for storage. The progression from house to permanent home was typical of development patterns of the area. "Because of the thickness and texture of roofs of sod houses, they were usually cool warm in winter. It was not expected that last very many years because sod is highly damage from the elements, especially wind temperature extremes. Few stood more than a "It is impossible to state definitely why remained standing long after most similar Great Plains had disappeared. Two ( may be connected with the home on the west and by a large elm tree next to on the south. "In spite of generally short life of structures was often, and in many places, the only available. As a result,  important contribution to the settlement c "Since obtaining the house in 1963, Historical Society has expended considerable to preserve and protect the structure, the condition when it was occupied. "It will be noted that in the McCully s  restoration materials are comparable to the oru [v.,.-_ be observed that the four outsi- de corners of tl 1. been rebuilt and that a new covering of sod has [)b . on the roof. The interior walls have been re- [ ' paint-like substance similar to that used by lg RV. 0 time of building. Furnishings are like those useU ,. '" during the McCnlly family occupancy, m ,4: ] "The last of its kind, this sod house rep_ leei step in the cultural development of Oklahoma ai lill j Yesindeed, theydon'tbuildthemliketheyuS" I --"