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March 24, 1982     Journal Opinion
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Number 12 Serving Over 48 Communities in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont 25' USP 5.qO March 24, 1982 n woman is Vermont's "Mother of the Year" Mrs. Laura of Groton has named the 1982 Mother of the is the wife of and is the G sponsored roton United Church. She has as President of the Methodist Church !n her community, m a local service called the Club, served the Junior High and chairman Chicken Additionally served as Sunday SUperintendent, of the local and served"on the Board and the letters of were sent in Page, everyone the tremendous she has exhibited for one of her who was injured in a in 1975, to Jean Secretary of the Mother's Com- Page's son :n a coma since. and she has young man at iii!i0000 i00il Laura Page, Vermont Mother of the Year in the Merit Mothers for 1982 Mrs. Page will be what it are Mrs. Stella Golec of honored at a reception at , be Vermont Bellows Falls and Mrs. the Groton Methodist the Year, said Mildred Keen of Water- Church on Sat., April 17, ford, Vt. 1982 at 2:00 p.m. Consultin00 firm sheds light on R0000ndall steps down possible public hydro projects principal's lob Newburv public hydro could get off the ground WELLS RIVER-- A group of three members of under consideration is the But thebasic scenario could Massachusetts based Barrett, Bernstein and Wright Associates, a hydro development consulting firm, and State Representative John Zampieri, the subject of public hydro ownership in the Newbury area seemed at least one step closer to reality. The group met following a tour of three hydro sites currently being eyed by the POWR Valley members as possible sites for the development of public hydro projects. The most probable site POWR Valley members got some expert advice last Saturday from a community- minded hydro consulting firm. That advice called for step- ped-up organization and a commitment to seek financing from a government consumer bank. As a result of Saturday's meeting, attended by representatives from POWR Valley (Peoples' Organization of the Wells River Valley), representatives from the Town of Newbury's Selectmen and Planning Commission, Ox]mw school will finish roof and reinvest settlement money Teachers grumble on no smoking uolicv - BRADFORD-- 'The $575,000 This would leave the school that Oxbow High School with about $280,000 to be received from GAF Cor- reinvested. But just where this poration from their leaking money will be reinvested was roof settlement has been in- the subject of considerab!e vested since the school discussion at last Thursday s received the money early this school board meeting. year. The investment period Eastman had recommended for this money runs out on April 20 and the Oxbow school board is looking to reinvest part of it. The school also has a $295,000 note that must be paid off by May 6. According to school treasurer Eris East- man, the $295,000 will be paid off out of the $575,000 set- tlement money before it is reinvested. selectmen discuss plans for town forest last week's the wood to town residents, expenditures for repairs to the possibility of further pursuing meeting, The wood is said to be cut and road was postponed until after a right of way through the reportedly deposited on lots in the forest this spring's mud season, property. the purchase by local contractors. The decison not to proceed In other business, the bordering on This year, the selectmen with purchasing the new selectmen reportedly in the nor- fear the road into the woodlot woodlot, reportedly hinged on discussed the possibility of of the town's from west of Lake Morey the fact that much of the 321 collecting $1,137 for out- might be in need of repairs because of heavy rains last fall. However, a decision on acre parceljs said to be either standing ambulance charges steep or swampy. However, from delinquent bills. selectmen did not rule out the the school board keep its in- vestment in a local Bradford bank. School board member Dan Perry said "I'm sure the Bradford bank has done us very well in the past.., but there are other banes around giving up to one percent higher (interest) and with this (amount) of money that can make a lot of difference." The other school board members, after some discussion, sided with Perry and designated by vote that the $280,000 will be reinvested sometime close to April 20 "by the board's finance com- mittee, the treasurer or the superintendent, at the highest yield available at the time" or the most favorable interest rate. Roof Contract In a related matter, the school board, on the advice of Orange East Supervisory Union District Superintendent John Fontana, voted to renegotiate their contract with the LINC Corporation for the remainder of the school's leaking roof that needs to be replaced. Regarding this issue, the school board also had the option of putting but the contract for bids. But they decided to go with LINC, who completed the first half of the roof project last fall, because bids would require project specifications to be rewritten (please turn to page 8) School budget passed at Piermont ad, currently the estate of is comprised acres and was the selectmen addition to the that would right of way the town's [ of way would, come out a 1981 timber the town that In $40,000 in Forest the town has cut from  the and acre forest by selling PIERMONT-- The annual This passed without board set the time of the school meeting was called to question or protest of any meeting waspassed. order at the Town Hall on item. However, Chairman Board .Member Sumner March 17 by Moderator Abby Metcalf explained the Harris urged voters to attend Lawrence Underhill. Ten special education figure as she the regular meetings of the parents and an equal number had done at the budget Board each month. of other voters attended, hearing earlier this month. Arnold Shields made a The first three articles on New Meeting Day motion that the board initiate the warrant were passed in A motion by James French a parents' group byDecember record time, including the that next year's School 1982. There was some biggest item of the town's Meeting be held on the same discussion as some of those expenses, almost a quarter of day as town meeting (which present thought that such a a million dollars --$226,762.01 was done for many years in group should be initiated by for education, the past) and that the school (pleaseturntopageg) power dam at the site of the defunct Corning Fibers paper mill on the Wells River. A second, and the least probable site being considered is about a mile upstream where, years ago, another "people's cooperative,' once operated a hydro-power dam. The dam is now almost completely demolished. A third site under con- sideration if the group decides to form a public energy cooperative is the old Ricker Mill in the Town of Groton on Groton Pond. Funds Available Michael Barrett, of the Massachusetts consulting firm, who is also a Massachusetts state legislator, told the group that if they are willing to pursue a hydro project, part of the funding is available 'through the National Conservative Cooperative Bank (NCC B). In fact, the NCCB's regional representative was to he at the meeting but was impeded by "car trouble". Basic Scenario Barrett and partners Jeff Bernstein and Francis Wright explained that to begin a hydro project would include a number of options. go as follows: -- A broad-based cooperative would have to be formed that would include representatives from the municipal government (or the cooperative could enter into some sort of partnership with the municipality); -- Next, the cooperative would presumably receive about 20 percent of the total investment from the NCCB (this would fund engineering fees, lawyers' fees, and the actual purchase of the site); -- The remainder of the project would be completed and funded by a private contractor or developer who would be willing to drop out of the picture after five to 10 years with short-term profits and new income tax incentives (21 percent of his investment) and perhaps a small per- centage, of the plant's long- term profits. Why would a developer want to exit from such an attractive long-range deal as hydro- power? According to Barrett, "There are two kinds of developers. One kind is willing to take on the entire cost and to wait for long-range profits. The other is willing to take a (please turn to page 3) Will stay on as special services coordinator by MARGARET BURKE assume next year in- WELLS RIVER--William G. corporates duties that had Randall, for eight years the been performed by a con- principal of Blue Mountain suiting teacher and expands Union School, resigned from them to include special that position at the March 17 education instruction, meeting of the District 21 academic counseling, and school board. He will finish the coordination of special ser- current school year as prin- vices. cipal, and return to the school Although stepping down next September in the newly from the principalship means created position of special a cut in salary, the shorter services instructor- hours of Randail's new coordinator, position minimize the actual Advertising for candidates difference in his earnings next for the job of Blue Mountain year, according to superin- principalhasbegun, tendent A. Keith Ober. Randall has worked at the Randall will also undertake school since its opening in the "extracurricular" role of 1970, first as a junior high dramatics instructor next English teacher. He holds a year. master's degree in special A new third grade teacher is education. The.job he will (please turn to page 3) CVPS public hearing to be held in Bradford BRADFORD-- Central open to the public. Anyone Vermont Public Service with an interest in the issue of Corporation will hold a public the proposed rate increase is hearing on Thursday, March invited to attend, 25 at 7:30 p.m. at the Bradford A fiumber of other topics: Academy building for the nuclear power, purchased public to present their views power costs, alternati,e on the company's proposed 25 energy, rate structure and percent rate increase, more are also expected to be The meeting is free and covered in the discussion. Local printin00 emp )tees worried about expiring copywrite clause \\; PETITION DELIVERED-.. Thomas Thomson, Vice President of Equity Publishing Corporation of Orford, New Hampshire shown delivering to Congressman John Ashbrook a petition signed by Equity employees supporting the Congressman's bill, H.R. 3940 to retain the Manufacturing Clause of the Copyright Law. Manufacturer says expiration could cost lobs Equity Publishing, founded by former New Hampshire Governor Meidrim Thomson, is the largest employer in Orford and its largest interest is in book publishing and printing. Industry Could Suffer A United States Department of Labor survey is said to show that if the manufacturing clause is removed from the copywrite law, between 170,000 and 368,000 job op- portunities could be lost in this country to overseas interests. The department estimated that in the printing industry alone, between 78,000 and 172,000 jo could be lost. Thomson has delivered the Equity petition to Congressman John Ashbrook- R-Ohio, who, along with S. Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond-R, has sponsored legislation designed to preserve the manufacturing clause. (please turn to page 3) ORFORD-- At least 59 em- ployees at a local publishing firm are worried that the expiration of a clause in a federal copywrite law could cost them their jobs in the future--and they have signed a petition saying they believe this is so. The petition signers, all workers at Equity Publishing Company in Orford, are talking about the Manufac. turing Clause in the Federal Copywrite Law which isdue to expire on July 1, 1982. The manufacturing clause essentially provides that, in order for a United States author to receive full United States copywrite protection for a book or certain other printed materials, the work must be manufactured in the United States or Canada. According to Equity Vice President Thomas ,.Thomson, the book industry would he the most likely to be hurt if the clause were not preserved. Earl Hood E. Topsham man reminisces on sugaring long Editor's Note-- Earl Hood says he is the oldest living man in E. Topsham. He lives with his wife in the same house that his father lived in and his grandfather before that. .At aS, he has a harder time getting around than he used to but he still gets excited and glows with enthusiasm when he speaks about the past. He is a man who has rarely left his comfortable surrounaings nestled in the hills of E. Topsnam. But ff you asked him why, he would probably tell you that's because he has never really wanted to. He is noted by the Woodstock Folklore Society as an authority on history in the area. There is also something a little different about Earl Hood. 12 years ago he married, for the first time, his wife Priscilla while in his 70's. That little twinkle in the corner of his eye has made him somewhat of a character in the town but Earl says that is the kind of thing that has kept him around for so long. Earl began his sugaring days in the early 1900's and was forced to quit sugaring around 1943 after family respon- sibilities and chores took over his time. The following is an account of what sugaring was like "in the old days" from Earl Hood, a man who began his first sugaring season more than 80 years ago. "I am 85 years old, oldest person in town, born in the place where I live, and oldest of 15 children. So .have heard and seen a lot of different ways of sugaring. "The Indians used to heat stone and drop it in the sap, I have heard, then people used Caldron Kettles hung over fire on poles, then they went to stone arches, I set two stone arches in our old sugar orchard or sugar place we used to call it. Had sap pans on the arch that were made by a tin shop, on a pan about 2x6 feet and then a half pan up next to the chimney and later years we had a heater next to the chimney to heat the sap so to boil faster. "They started to have brick arches after awhile instead of stone and also started having sugar houses. "I remember my grandfather had a sugar house up back of our house when I was young. "It had a brick arch and a round sap holder which made pretty dark strong syrup and sugar. One night the sugar house burnt. Then we didn't sugar again until about 1902 when father and brother bought another brother's farm. "At this sugar place, my uncle took first prize from the Vermont Sugarmaker's Association. "Years ago they tapped trees with gouge or one half i'ound chisel, drove in one way then turned and drove the other way. They had to have a tin spout made round and drove in below the tap hole than a nail to hook the bucket on. "I have heard my father tell how years ago, before they had cedar sap buckets, they cut spruce about seven inches through, sawed up three ft. long and chiseled out in- side, like an old water trough, to set at the roots of tree's to catch the sap. They had long sap spouts made from sumack and would push it out with a wire or burn it out. When sugaring was over they turned the troughs over at the foot of the trees until next year. "When you tap a tree, you want to tap under a big limb or over a big root, sap will run better. You could buy wooden spouts, turned on a lathe, things would have wire hooks that slipped over the spout. Later they had galvanized and iron. "One fellow at E. Corinth named Duke Emerson, invented the first galvanized spout I ever see, they were pretty good spouts, but when you got them out of the tree, you had to hit them one way then the other, and after awhile they would break in the middle. Sap Yokes "The old people used to gather sap, with sap yokes over their shoulders and cords on rope with hooks on the end, hitched to pails of sap in order to carry sap tp pans or kettles. "Before we had tin buckets, we had cedar sap buckets. Some would be bigger at top, some had wood hoops, later ones had steel hoops, Some buckets would be smaller at top then at the bottom and one stave longer with a hole in to hang on a nail. "The gathering pails please turn to page 7) THE HOOD RESIDENCE-- This house has been in Earl Hood's family for at least three generations and is located just outside of the village of E. Topsbam on the Groton Road. Number 12 Serving Over 48 Communities in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont 25' USP 5.qO March 24, 1982 n woman is Vermont's "Mother of the Year" Mrs. Laura of Groton has named the 1982 Mother of the is the wife of and is the G sponsored roton United Church. She has as President of the Methodist Church !n her community, m a local service called the Club, served the Junior High and chairman Chicken Additionally served as Sunday SUperintendent, of the local and served"on the Board and the letters of were sent in Page, everyone the tremendous she has exhibited for one of her who was injured in a in 1975, to Jean Secretary of the Mother's Com- Page's son :n a coma since. and she has young man at iii!i0000 i00il Laura Page, Vermont Mother of the Year in the Merit Mothers for 1982 Mrs. Page will be what it are Mrs. Stella Golec of honored at a reception at , be Vermont Bellows Falls and Mrs. the Groton Methodist the Year, said Mildred Keen of Water- Church on Sat., April 17, ford, Vt. 1982 at 2:00 p.m. Consultin00 firm sheds light on R0000ndall steps down possible public hydro projects principal's lob Newburv public hydro could get off the ground WELLS RIVER-- A group of three members of under consideration is the But thebasic scenario could Massachusetts based Barrett, Bernstein and Wright Associates, a hydro development consulting firm, and State Representative John Zampieri, the subject of public hydro ownership in the Newbury area seemed at least one step closer to reality. The group met following a tour of three hydro sites currently being eyed by the POWR Valley members as possible sites for the development of public hydro projects. The most probable site POWR Valley members got some expert advice last Saturday from a community- minded hydro consulting firm. That advice called for step- ped-up organization and a commitment to seek financing from a government consumer bank. As a result of Saturday's meeting, attended by representatives from POWR Valley (Peoples' Organization of the Wells River Valley), representatives from the Town of Newbury's Selectmen and Planning Commission, Ox]mw school will finish roof and reinvest settlement money Teachers grumble on no smoking uolicv - BRADFORD-- 'The $575,000 This would leave the school that Oxbow High School with about $280,000 to be received from GAF Cor- reinvested. But just where this poration from their leaking money will be reinvested was roof settlement has been in- the subject of considerab!e vested since the school discussion at last Thursday s received the money early this school board meeting. year. The investment period Eastman had recommended for this money runs out on April 20 and the Oxbow school board is looking to reinvest part of it. The school also has a $295,000 note that must be paid off by May 6. According to school treasurer Eris East- man, the $295,000 will be paid off out of the $575,000 set- tlement money before it is reinvested. selectmen discuss plans for town forest last week's the wood to town residents, expenditures for repairs to the possibility of further pursuing meeting, The wood is said to be cut and road was postponed until after a right of way through the reportedly deposited on lots in the forest this spring's mud season, property. the purchase by local contractors. The decison not to proceed In other business, the bordering on This year, the selectmen with purchasing the new selectmen reportedly in the nor- fear the road into the woodlot woodlot, reportedly hinged on discussed the possibility of of the town's from west of Lake Morey the fact that much of the 321 collecting $1,137 for out- might be in need of repairs because of heavy rains last fall. However, a decision on acre parceljs said to be either standing ambulance charges steep or swampy. However, from delinquent bills. selectmen did not rule out the the school board keep its in- vestment in a local Bradford bank. School board member Dan Perry said "I'm sure the Bradford bank has done us very well in the past.., but there are other banes around giving up to one percent higher (interest) and with this (amount) of money that can make a lot of difference." The other school board members, after some discussion, sided with Perry and designated by vote that the $280,000 will be reinvested sometime close to April 20 "by the board's finance com- mittee, the treasurer or the superintendent, at the highest yield available at the time" or the most favorable interest rate. Roof Contract In a related matter, the school board, on the advice of Orange East Supervisory Union District Superintendent John Fontana, voted to renegotiate their contract with the LINC Corporation for the remainder of the school's leaking roof that needs to be replaced. Regarding this issue, the school board also had the option of putting but the contract for bids. But they decided to go with LINC, who completed the first half of the roof project last fall, because bids would require project specifications to be rewritten (please turn to page 8) School budget passed at Piermont ad, currently the estate of is comprised acres and was the selectmen addition to the that would right of way the town's [ of way would, come out a 1981 timber the town that In $40,000 in Forest the town has cut from  the and acre forest by selling PIERMONT-- The annual This passed without board set the time of the school meeting was called to question or protest of any meeting waspassed. order at the Town Hall on item. However, Chairman Board .Member Sumner March 17 by Moderator Abby Metcalf explained the Harris urged voters to attend Lawrence Underhill. Ten special education figure as she the regular meetings of the parents and an equal number had done at the budget Board each month. of other voters attended, hearing earlier this month. Arnold Shields made a The first three articles on New Meeting Day motion that the board initiate the warrant were passed in A motion by James French a parents' group byDecember record time, including the that next year's School 1982. There was some biggest item of the town's Meeting be held on the same discussion as some of those expenses, almost a quarter of day as town meeting (which present thought that such a a million dollars --$226,762.01 was done for many years in group should be initiated by for education, the past) and that the school (pleaseturntopageg) power dam at the site of the defunct Corning Fibers paper mill on the Wells River. A second, and the least probable site being considered is about a mile upstream where, years ago, another "people's cooperative,' once operated a hydro-power dam. The dam is now almost completely demolished. A third site under con- sideration if the group decides to form a public energy cooperative is the old Ricker Mill in the Town of Groton on Groton Pond. Funds Available Michael Barrett, of the Massachusetts consulting firm, who is also a Massachusetts state legislator, told the group that if they are willing to pursue a hydro project, part of the funding is available 'through the National Conservative Cooperative Bank (NCC B). In fact, the NCCB's regional representative was to he at the meeting but was impeded by "car trouble". Basic Scenario Barrett and partners Jeff Bernstein and Francis Wright explained that to begin a hydro project would include a number of options. go as follows: -- A broad-based cooperative would have to be formed that would include representatives from the municipal government (or the cooperative could enter into some sort of partnership with the municipality); -- Next, the cooperative would presumably receive about 20 percent of the total investment from the NCCB (this would fund engineering fees, lawyers' fees, and the actual purchase of the site); -- The remainder of the project would be completed and funded by a private contractor or developer who would be willing to drop out of the picture after five to 10 years with short-term profits and new income tax incentives (21 percent of his investment) and perhaps a small per- centage, of the plant's long- term profits. Why would a developer want to exit from such an attractive long-range deal as hydro- power? According to Barrett, "There are two kinds of developers. One kind is willing to take on the entire cost and to wait for long-range profits. The other is willing to take a (please turn to page 3) Will stay on as special services coordinator by MARGARET BURKE assume next year in- WELLS RIVER--William G. corporates duties that had Randall, for eight years the been performed by a con- principal of Blue Mountain suiting teacher and expands Union School, resigned from them to include special that position at the March 17 education instruction, meeting of the District 21 academic counseling, and school board. He will finish the coordination of special ser- current school year as prin- vices. cipal, and return to the school Although stepping down next September in the newly from the principalship means created position of special a cut in salary, the shorter services instructor- hours of Randail's new coordinator, position minimize the actual Advertising for candidates difference in his earnings next for the job of Blue Mountain year, according to superin- principalhasbegun, tendent A. Keith Ober. Randall has worked at the Randall will also undertake school since its opening in the "extracurricular" role of 1970, first as a junior high dramatics instructor next English teacher. He holds a year. master's degree in special A new third grade teacher is education. The.job he will (please turn to page 3) CVPS public hearing to be held in Bradford BRADFORD-- Central open to the public. Anyone Vermont Public Service with an interest in the issue of Corporation will hold a public the proposed rate increase is hearing on Thursday, March invited to attend, 25 at 7:30 p.m. at the Bradford A fiumber of other topics: Academy building for the nuclear power, purchased public to present their views power costs, alternati,e on the company's proposed 25 energy, rate structure and percent rate increase, more are also expected to be The meeting is free and covered in the discussion. Local printin00 emp )tees worried about expiring copywrite clause \\; PETITION DELIVERED-.. Thomas Thomson, Vice President of Equity Publishing Corporation of Orford, New Hampshire shown delivering to Congressman John Ashbrook a petition signed by Equity employees supporting the Congressman's bill, H.R. 3940 to retain the Manufacturing Clause of the Copyright Law. Manufacturer says expiration could cost lobs Equity Publishing, founded by former New Hampshire Governor Meidrim Thomson, is the largest employer in Orford and its largest interest is in book publishing and printing. Industry Could Suffer A United States Department of Labor survey is said to show that if the manufacturing clause is removed from the copywrite law, between 170,000 and 368,000 job op- portunities could be lost in this country to overseas interests. The department estimated that in the printing industry alone, between 78,000 and 172,000 jo could be lost. Thomson has delivered the Equity petition to Congressman John Ashbrook- R-Ohio, who, along with S. Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond-R, has sponsored legislation designed to preserve the manufacturing clause. (please turn to page 3) ORFORD-- At least 59 em- ployees at a local publishing firm are worried that the expiration of a clause in a federal copywrite law could cost them their jobs in the future--and they have signed a petition saying they believe this is so. The petition signers, all workers at Equity Publishing Company in Orford, are talking about the Manufac. turing Clause in the Federal Copywrite Law which isdue to expire on July 1, 1982. The manufacturing clause essentially provides that, in order for a United States author to receive full United States copywrite protection for a book or certain other printed materials, the work must be manufactured in the United States or Canada. According to Equity Vice President Thomas ,.Thomson, the book industry would he the most likely to be hurt if the clause were not preserved. Earl Hood E. Topsham man reminisces on sugaring long Editor's Note-- Earl Hood says he is the oldest living man in E. Topsham. He lives with his wife in the same house that his father lived in and his grandfather before that. .At aS, he has a harder time getting around than he used to but he still gets excited and glows with enthusiasm when he speaks about the past. He is a man who has rarely left his comfortable surrounaings nestled in the hills of E. Topsnam. But ff you asked him why, he would probably tell you that's because he has never really wanted to. He is noted by the Woodstock Folklore Society as an authority on history in the area. There is also something a little different about Earl Hood. 12 years ago he married, for the first time, his wife Priscilla while in his 70's. That little twinkle in the corner of his eye has made him somewhat of a character in the town but Earl says that is the kind of thing that has kept him around for so long. Earl began his sugaring days in the early 1900's and was forced to quit sugaring around 1943 after family respon- sibilities and chores took over his time. The following is an account of what sugaring was like "in the old days" from Earl Hood, a man who began his first sugaring season more than 80 years ago. "I am 85 years old, oldest person in town, born in the place where I live, and oldest of 15 children. So .have heard and seen a lot of different ways of sugaring. "The Indians used to heat stone and drop it in the sap, I have heard, then people used Caldron Kettles hung over fire on poles, then they went to stone arches, I set two stone arches in our old sugar orchard or sugar place we used to call it. Had sap pans on the arch that were made by a tin shop, on a pan about 2x6 feet and then a half pan up next to the chimney and later years we had a heater next to the chimney to heat the sap so to boil faster. "They started to have brick arches after awhile instead of stone and also started having sugar houses. "I remember my grandfather had a sugar house up back of our house when I was young. "It had a brick arch and a round sap holder which made pretty dark strong syrup and sugar. One night the sugar house burnt. Then we didn't sugar again until about 1902 when father and brother bought another brother's farm. "At this sugar place, my uncle took first prize from the Vermont Sugarmaker's Association. "Years ago they tapped trees with gouge or one half i'ound chisel, drove in one way then turned and drove the other way. They had to have a tin spout made round and drove in below the tap hole than a nail to hook the bucket on. "I have heard my father tell how years ago, before they had cedar sap buckets, they cut spruce about seven inches through, sawed up three ft. long and chiseled out in- side, like an old water trough, to set at the roots of tree's to catch the sap. They had long sap spouts made from sumack and would push it out with a wire or burn it out. When sugaring was over they turned the troughs over at the foot of the trees until next year. "When you tap a tree, you want to tap under a big limb or over a big root, sap will run better. You could buy wooden spouts, turned on a lathe, things would have wire hooks that slipped over the spout. Later they had galvanized and iron. "One fellow at E. Corinth named Duke Emerson, invented the first galvanized spout I ever see, they were pretty good spouts, but when you got them out of the tree, you had to hit them one way then the other, and after awhile they would break in the middle. Sap Yokes "The old people used to gather sap, with sap yokes over their shoulders and cords on rope with hooks on the end, hitched to pails of sap in order to carry sap tp pans or kettles. "Before we had tin buckets, we had cedar sap buckets. Some would be bigger at top, some had wood hoops, later ones had steel hoops, Some buckets would be smaller at top then at the bottom and one stave longer with a hole in to hang on a nail. "The gathering pails please turn to page 7) THE HOOD RESIDENCE-- This house has been in Earl Hood's family for at least three generations and is located just outside of the village of E. Topsbam on the Groton Road.