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April 8, 1981     Journal Opinion
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Page 4-The Journal Opinion-April 8, 1981 :  4i NORTHEAST PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc. Publisher of Journal il Opinion Wedly ,noir pbNsked b Idford. Vomont. Slkudptton rs V, rmoat oral Now hmpmki - $.|0 per year; SILO0 for six meuf&s; eet ef stets - $12.00 per yoer end $7.00 for six months; Senior cltlz discount $2.00. Robert F. Huminski President & Publisher An independent Newspaper (Editorials t Support your library This is National Library Week, a good time to check the local library for the latest in good reading material. Public libraries too frequently fall in the "taken-for-granted" category, but they have long been an essential factor in our national and local life. Literacy--the ability to read--is a key ingredient in democracy. How else could we study issues, events and political debates before making up our minds on how to vote in each election? Many countries have very low literacy rates and few libraries and their citizens frequently fall prey to demagogues and dictators. The library is also a place to go for just plain relaxation--reading for fun--and of course the library is important to our children to sup- plement and broaden the education they get at school. No teacher would agree that just reading assigned school work is enough. For young people, getting the reading habit early is a key to later success in life, as well as a life-loug pleasure. And of course we go to the library to research the things that interest us--the history of our town, our state or our country, or maybe just to look up some odd fact to win a friendly bet with a friend. Libraries throughout Vermont and New Hampshire are joining those across the nation in celebrating National Library Week with special events that focus on the valuable resource that our libraries constitute. In Vermont, for instance, Gov. Richard Snelling's proclamation cites the state's  libraries as "a unique chain of educational, cultural and recreational benefits to the residents of Vermont," and urges all residents to support their libraries. Go to your library, today for a good book or magazine, and support it all year long! I II III I Letters to the i ill I i . Tldngs going well in Minnesota To the Editor: Once again I have decided to sit down, and briug you up to date on what is going on in Grande Marais Minnesota. First off, last week. and the week before. I spent about four nights playing the Pep band as our basketball team at Cook County High made it to become the District Champs for the first time in the school's history. It was very exciting. One game we had two overtimes, and one by two excellent foul shots Then we lost in our 1st regional game, but it was fun, Now l am participating in track here. I am going to throw the shot put. I'm not real good yet. but I'm having ,. fun trying. I never realized ;% just how complicated it is to ** throw a shot put. On April 10th Tatiana, who is the Winter Program AFS ; student at Grand Marais from : Brazil. 14 other kids and myself are going to Madison, , Wisconsin on a short term  exchange. Then, in the 1st week of May, the kids from Madison (16) will be coming here. It should be really fun! We go to Duluth and take a train at 12:00 p.m.. then arrive in Madison, Wisconsin at 4:20  a.m. We will spend a week touring Madison and seeing ,: the sights including the zoo, tv station and many other things. So it should be a busy and fun  experience. On April 3rd, a jazz en- semble from Grand Rapids will be coming here to Grand Murals to put on a concert with our high school jazz band. Then there will be a dance, and three kids will be staying here at my home. It should be a really nice concert. I know our jazz band is good and hear theirs is. " :an't wait. This last weekend. Morn, Julie, Jimmy and I went over to some friends house, and teamed up with Park, Tim, Joanie and Jeff, to tap 40 Editor Mining at South Stratford According to local legends, ore deposits in this area were first discovered in 1793 in South Stratford, when two men who were gathering maple sap in the spring noticed brown color in the runoff from melting snow. In the early years, the Ore which had been discovered was valued mainly for its iron content. Some of it was sent to the newly-constructed iron- smelting furnace at Fran- conia, but it contained so much sulfur that it clogged the furnace. In 1809, however, manufacture of copperas was introduced by the Vermont Mineral Factory Company, succeeded by the Vermont Copperas Company, and the location became known as Copperas Hill. Copperas, an iron-sulfur substance, was prepared by passing water through the ore to leach out a solution from which a crust of crystals was removed. Cop- peras had many uses, such as in inks, paints, and dyes, and for tanning hides -- for which quantities were shipped west for the use of pioneer trappers and buffalo hunters. As the miners at South Stratford dug deeper, they began finding significant amounts of copper in the ore. Experimentation with copper During the 1800's there was considerable ex- perimentation in the United States in developing methods of copper ore concentration and smelling -- and much of it took place in South Stratford. The greatest progress here was made by Isaac Tyson, Jr., a chemical manufacturer from Baltimore. during the 1830's. Through Tyson's efforts. the production of copper reached about half a ton a day -- probably the largest in the country at that time -- but technical, transportation, and I I I I I I I I II Vote of con00d,n,00 good time trying everything To the Editor: even if we're not really suc- Frank Sahlman is my cessful, though I think if the friend, I have known him for weather gets a little warmer maxiy years. Sixteen of those during the day, we should get years he was the manager of alotofsap. Washington Electric Co- Our first try to tap a maple operative while I was the tree was not good. We tapped Member Relations Director. an ash tree! Then while During his years as tapping some more, we saw a manager the Co-operative was big tree. stuck a spout in it and brought from near bankruptcy it was a yellow Birch! But we figured out what a maple tree is now! Sa The snow has been steadily disappearing, and last week "fO was a really nice and warm r re.election week. This weekendand today To the Editor: have been cold, damp, I Have been a member of overcast and rainy. But last the Washington Electric Co- Sunday was good kite flying operative for many years as weather. Jimmy, Dad and I an owner ofa summer cottage took out a kite, and flew it on at Joe's Pond. This month the the lake. It really went up members have an opportunity there, and no need to worry to participate in an election to about trees to tangle up in or pick directors of the co- anything, operative who will best serve Well, I guess it's time I all our interests. stopped rambling on. I seem Frank Sahlman is one of the to be doing alright in school, present directors running for I'll know forsure, whenreport re-election. He is by far the cards come out at the end of most qualified candidate the week. picked by the nominating The chorus and band had a committee. You can be concert last Thursday. It assured his leadership, came off quite well. I think. I knowledge and experience has had fun, playing in both the been a factor in the present band and singing in the stability of the co-operative. chorus. I hope my friends who are Well, hope everyone is also members of the co- happy and well. operative will east a ballot Cynthia Underhill with me for the re-election of Piermont, N.H. Frank Sahlman. P.S Hi Morn, Dad, Calvin & Homer Fltts Correna. Oh yea, Mark too. Barre, Vt. to being a very respected organization. His leadership helped provide the strong base that made it possible for the Co-operative to get through the problems of the past few years. Many of the benefits that are realized today by the members of the co-operative are due to the policies and decisions that were made while Frank was the manager. As secretary of the "Committee for Lowest Cost Power", I was glad to see the support given him in the past as a candidate for trustee. I hope the members again give him their support and vote He has the type of experience in energy related matters that the Co-operative needs. Harvey Pilette Barre, Vt. Surprised by Bradford voters To the Editor: Surprised to learn that the voters in Bradford voted down the small sum of $1500 to the Cottage Hospital at Town Meeting. Cottage Hospital admitted 1265 in-patients and 7543 out- patients in the past year. Bradford numbered 103 in- patients or 8.1 percent and 618 out-patient or 8.2 percent. T. Borden Walker Woodsville 3OO.m00 of TotheEdltor: radioactive uranium and exposure any person would May I offer some solace and thorium, get in a life time spent within comfort to the eco4reaks, who This fact was graphically 50 miles of the Three Mile shiver in fear of the nuclear demonstrated by nuclear Island accident was the same electric plants, scientist Alvin Weinberg when as a resident of Denver, Dr. Arthur M. Beuche, .last he showed up with a Geiger Colorado gets every three year's winner of the American counter (an instrument used weeks from natural Institute of Chemists gold to measure radioactivity)to background radiation. medal award, sees a parallel testify in the granite sheathed The March 28, 1981 anti- := between today's nuclear Dirksen Senate Office nuclear demonstration at fphobia and the 17th century Building. (Inhabitants of the Harrisburg, Pa. was heavily ear of witches. Remember, granite states of Vermont and sprinkled with known corn- maple trees. Unfortunately Salem, Mass. where a New Hampshire, pack upand munistsympathizers. our weather has b,n cold and frightened people burned the prepare to flee.) When Senate The striking coal miners rainy so we haven t had much witches at the stake. Emergency Sub. Committee even were represented and 'sap run yet. But we're hoping. Radiation from a nuclear Chairman John Glenn heard well they might be. And then we intend to have a plant may be less than the the readings he exclaimed. This is a fact of which most big boiling down party with ground you walk on, or the "We are getting more people are unaware; a year's to dip in the buildinl in which you work. radiation right here in this supply of fuel for a l-million fro This brings to mind the building than they got down kilowatt nuclear plant can be and Vermont State capitol and the wind from the Three Mile brought to the plant in less sugar candy, ram- National Life building in Island nuclear electric plant, than 20 truck loads. The coal m,mm. Montpelier, especially if the The presidential commission for the same sized plant for  Its been funso far, and I bed rock or walls happen to be on Three Mile Island found the one year would require a expect we will have a really granite, which is often rich in actual average radiation string of hopper coal cars. 300 financial problems halted pants, and boots. Each man operations in 1837. Production wore a helmet with a miner's resumed off-and-ou after that time, being active during the Civil War. In the late 1870's, Isaac Tyson's son James came to South Strafford. He had inherited the family's copper mining interests and his father's yen for ex- perimentation, as did his son, James, Jr. They named the mine for James' wife, Elizabeth. Several Tyson descen- dants still live in Stratford, including the great grand- daughter of Isaac Tyson, Miss Rosa B. Tyson, who lives at the family home, "Buena Vista". on the copper mine road in South Strafford. Also, Rosa's sister, Elizabeth T. Wilson, has descendants in the area. In 1908, August Heekscher, a New Jersey zinc tycoon, completed a million- dollar project which included elaborate new equipment at the Elizabeth Mine, along with a new hydroelectric plant at Sharon to operate it. The project suddenly went up in smoke following an explosion in the furnace building. The furnace was rebuilt, but never went into successful operation. The power plant in Sharon went out in the 1927 flood. Mining was resumed in a small way during World War I and the years following, but stopped with the Depression. The nationwide copper shortage during World War It prompted a reevaluation and purchase of the Elizabeth Mine, along with those in Vershire and Corinth, by George A. Ellis, a New York lawyer who was a native of Vermont and was anxious to help Vermont realize its full potential in the war effort. Modern new plant Rehabilitation of the Elizabeth Mine and con- struction of a completely new processing plant began in 1942. and production began within a year. The mine and mill operated around-the- clock. During wartime labor shortages, the company brought in men from as far away as Newfoundland, but most of the employees com- muted from - neighboring towns, and included many descendants of the oldtime copper miners who had settled in the area. In the early 1950's the employment level reached its peak at nearly 250: peak annual production was 8.500,000 pounds. A com- parison with the Ely mine's peaks of 850 men and 3,IBG,000 pounds shows the labor- efficiency of modern technology, which produced almost ten times as much copper per man. Copper was produced as a 25 percent concentrate, a greenish-brown powder which was shipped to Long Island for smelting. Enough gold was extracted from the ore during smelting to pay the electric bills for the entire plant at South Strafford. When a national sulfur shortage occurred in 1950, arrangements were made with the Brown Company in Berlin. N.H. for delivery of 105,000 tons of pyrrhotite concentrate, a sulfur-iron residue from the copper- separation process. The mill at South Stratford was enlarged, and about a third of the failings was reworked to salvage the pyrrhotite for shipping to Berlin to make sulfur dioxide for manufac- turing paper. Inside the mine Charles Judd. Francis Clark. and others have recollections of what it was like working inside the Elizabeth Mine and the contrast between oldtime m!n)ng and the mechanized mmmg during the 1940's and '50's. Oidtime mining was a dirt.y business, and modern mmmg was no different in that respect. When a miner arrived for work. he headed first for the "change house", where he changed into his mining clothes, including long un- derwear, and rubber jacket, miles long; that would be 3- million tons of coal. Is it any wonder that the coal miners were at the anti-nuclear rally? M. Nevins Etowah. N.C. light on it so he had his hands free for his work. At the end of his shift he would shower and change back to his regular clothes, leaving the dust and dirt of the mine behind him. The entrance tunnel took the men 300 yards into the mine, where a nine-man elevator or "bucket" carried them down as much as a thousand feet in less than a minute. The inside of the hill was honeycombed with shafts and tunnels, stretching two miles horizontally. Through the cooperation of geologists, engineers, and miners, the veins of copper ore were followed and blasted out. For safety, the major blasting took place between shifts, but there were smaller blasts continually, day and night, using a ton of dynamite a day. The freshly-blasted ore or "muck" was hosed with water to keep down dust and gases, then was loaded and carried to the surface. The whole operation was mechanized -- the drills, the "mucking machine" that loaded the ore, the narrow- guage train that carried the ore out to the shaft, the "bucket" that carried ore to the surface, and the various cars and conveyors that carried the ore through crushers and into the flotation vats. The miner's oldtime basic tool, the pickax, was used only when a crew was laying new track The heat Of summer and cold of winter made no dif- ference deep inside the mine, as the temperature remained a steady 51 degrees, year- round. Separating the copper Aboveground, in the mill, the ore was crushed and ground into a fine powder, then combined with a mixture of water, pine oil and chemicals. The copper granules were attracted to the oily bubbles of this liquid, while waste material sank to the bottom and was removed. By this process, anywhere from 87 to 93 percent of the copper in the ore was saved. Everything else except the salvaged pyrrhotite went into the "failings pond", which gradually filled the valley below the mill. Safety problems Considering the size of the mining operation and the ever-present hazards of mining, there were very few accidents. One time two Newfoundlanders were killed at the 100-foot level when a huge piece of rock fell and crushed them. The same thing happened at the 300-foot level to two men from the local area. One of them was Clem Demers of Post Mills. It is ironic that he would have been done working in twoweeks. There was another ac- cident in which the wrong switch was thrown and the hoist went up instead of down, throwing an elevatorload of men up through the top of the head frame and dropping them 50 feet to the ground. Fortunately there was more than two feet of snow on the ground to help cushion their fall. Nobody was killed, but one man lost an arm and a leg. Nobody was ever killed by poisonous gases in the mine, although some were sick from them. The mine was always ventilated after each dynamite blast. Closing the mine in 1958 After producing a total of million pounds of copper in 15 years, the Elizabeth Mine finally closed in 1958. Until that time it was the oldest operating copper mine in the country, and. the only one in New England. Many former employees still live in the area and have gone back to far- ruing or to other jobs. There is nothing to see at the Elizabeth Mine now except decaying buildings, closed mine entrances, and the enormous tailings pond of granular waste material from the mill, changing its color wit h the seasons. (Note: Thanks to Charles and Carrie Judd of Stratford and Francis Clari of Union Village for their help. Infor- mation also came from Green Mountain Copper by Collamer Abbott, and from data com- piled by George Bassingth- waighte for the Vermont Copper Company. ) Vermont Secretary of State James H. Douglas When is a law not a law Did you know that Vermont licenses wild west shows and foot peddlers? These are some of the archaic laws still on the books in Vermont. The question of what is the law has tormented lawyers, judges and legal philosophers for centuries. On one point they all agree: a law is not a law if it isn't enforced. Vermont has many laws, most of them enforceable and enforced. There are a few laws, however, that are still on the books, but that fail to meet the tests of uniform enforceability, or fairness. It's my opinion they should he repealed, and I've begun that process by proposing bills repealing these laws to the 1981 General Assembly. There are two differ, ent laws, for in- stance, on peddlers and vendors, both with singular faults. The first problem with them is telling the difference between a peddler and a ven- dor. The laws aren't too clear except that local governments do have the authority to license vendors, in addition to the present State licensing system. For another thing, the licensing isn't being respected. Only a the state's travelling sales peo to register as peddlers last year than two dozen State licenses to vendors, and no peddlers at all by the State. The cost of maintaining State for both of these occupations is than the revenue taken in by the .' two or three times. The fact is, these are very have lost their usefulness over peddler statute first became law our vendor license in 1894. In they represent ideas that belong to of horse travel, times when were not known or available towns. The time has come to put them along with the law photographers, and the law wild west shows and menageries. U.S. Senate Report Gordon J. Humphrey Helpless little persons Abortion is an emotionally-charged subject hound to spark sharp debate and dissension. For years, it has been shunned in polite conversation. Now, however, all that is changing as the huge and growing number of abortions brings the issue to the forefront of public attention. Like President Reagan, I oppose abortion because I consider it tantamount to the taking of human life. I realize this places me in conflict with those who describe themselves as pro-choice, i.e., who say women have sovereign control over their own bodies. But I believe that in the case of abortion more than the woman's body is involved. The life of the unborn child is also at stake, and the Constitution very specifically protects the right of human life. Pro-abortionists, of course, dispute this view. They cite the 1973 Roe vs. Wade decision, in which the Supreme Court legalized abortion by stating that unborn human beings are not legal persons. However, many people who have analyzed this decision are convinced it is tragically flawed, and contradicts both elementary logic and the latest, most sophisticated medical evidence available. Actually, Roe vs. Wade bears an ugly resemblance to the horribly racist Dred Scott decision of 1857. This was the'case in which the Supreme Court decided while Dred Scott, a black man, may have looked like a person, and even acted like one, he was still only a form of property and thus not entitled to the protection of the Con- stitution. It is an ugly parallel, but an accurate one nevertheless. It is logically irrefutable that the off- spring of human beings are human beings, and that life begins when the cells of a man and woman unite. To attempt to argue that these cells can unite and yet not be human until some later, arbitrary, court- determined date is simply ludicrous. Consider the words of Dr. Bernard Nathanson, who once headed the Center for Reproductive and Sexual Health, called by Good Housekeeping licensed abortion facility in the world." He said: "I became that as director of the clinic 1 presided over 60,000 deaths.. six weeks we can detect heart embryos with an can record brain activity at Our capacity to measure signs becoming more sophisticated and as time goes by able to isolate those signs at earlier stages in fetal vehemently deny that life conception begins is absurd..." The product of conception is being in a special time of its part of a continuum that be uterus, passes through adolescence and adulthood, and death. The fact that a fetus de placenta for life doesn't existence as a hmnan being." Some people claim that pose abortion are blinded by their beliefs. Certainly it is true that was condemned in both the the Old Testament in writings. But these foree in :aient: Greece, example, the Oath of Hil doctors to swear they would abortions. Actually, abortion demned as far back as 1728 Code of Hammurabi. Western civilization has rooted in certain fundam values, the most important protection of innocent human life. year, in modern, "civilized" more than one and a half millio were sacrificed under the guise planning, or simply as a means personal inconvenience. can we close our eyes to this carnage, rationalizing it all away statistics, rather than hel persons. Lieutenant Governor's Madeleine Kunin, {D-Vt.) Fragile layer of civilization We know that under the fragile layer of civilization, chaos tosses and turns, ready to erupt without notice. We comfort ourselves, nevertheless, with the conviction that if we lead orderly lives, these dark forces of violence will remain under control. If you watch for the ' green light, you won't be hit by a car, we tell our children. And if you learn to say "please" and "thank you", the world will treat you kindly. But when the shots ring out and bodies fall in slow motion on the television screen, that layer of civilization is momentarily ruptured, and we are afraid. In morbid fascination we watch the same video tape again and again, looking for some clue which will tell us how the world could be transformed so in- stantaneously. One moment the President is smiling, hand raised in confident greeting, and suddenly, the scene changes. Crackling sounds fill the air. We see pain, chaos, and fear, arising out of nowhere--a hand in the crowd. The assault on the United States, his press two law enforcement officers is an assault on authorit act which pains each one of deprives us of our sense of world. The world looked different second when the shots rang piece it back together again, outrage with one another. damage to our souls by humdrum routines, by driving the highway and listening reports which will tell us day's sky will bring. Finally, we tell ourselves an isolated senseless act relationship to our lives. after such an act of violence, civilization which we have over our world seems fragile than before. Red Cross Bloodmobile in BRADFORD--On Friday, most successful. Area draws amatic of April 17, the Vermont-New begin regularly in 1951 to needs. On a Hampshire Red Cross support local hospitals and 85#00 pints Bloodmobile will be coming to blood needs of those involved This year, to 1 Bradford. The drawing will he in the Korean conflict. Open your held at the Oxbow High School heart surgery, kidney goal of 95 Auditorium from 12 noon to 5 dialysis, kidney transplants, drawing. p.m. pharesus are the most - This drawing will be the Blood drive first in Bradford during the Red Cross's 100th year in the ORFORD--The Senior Class "drive is United States. You are invited of Orford High School and the first blood I to come and help celebrate by American Red Cross will over20yea donating, sponsor a blood drive June 3 If you ar I The National Blood from l:30-Sp.m, inMemorial years of age Program began in 1947, two Hall, Orford. health, you a years later saw the formal All types of blood are give. Donors start of the Vt.-N.H. Blood needed. The goal of the blood Fairlee, Program, one of the nations Page 4-The Journal Opinion-April 8, 1981 :  4i NORTHEAST PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc. Publisher of Journal il Opinion Wedly ,noir pbNsked b Idford. Vomont. Slkudptton rs V, rmoat oral Now hmpmki - $.|0 per year; SILO0 for six meuf&s; eet ef stets - $12.00 per yoer end $7.00 for six months; Senior cltlz discount $2.00. Robert F. Huminski President & Publisher An independent Newspaper (Editorials t Support your library This is National Library Week, a good time to check the local library for the latest in good reading material. Public libraries too frequently fall in the "taken-for-granted" category, but they have long been an essential factor in our national and local life. Literacy--the ability to read--is a key ingredient in democracy. How else could we study issues, events and political debates before making up our minds on how to vote in each election? Many countries have very low literacy rates and few libraries and their citizens frequently fall prey to demagogues and dictators. The library is also a place to go for just plain relaxation--reading for fun--and of course the library is important to our children to sup- plement and broaden the education they get at school. No teacher would agree that just reading assigned school work is enough. For young people, getting the reading habit early is a key to later success in life, as well as a life-loug pleasure. And of course we go to the library to research the things that interest us--the history of our town, our state or our country, or maybe just to look up some odd fact to win a friendly bet with a friend. Libraries throughout Vermont and New Hampshire are joining those across the nation in celebrating National Library Week with special events that focus on the valuable resource that our libraries constitute. In Vermont, for instance, Gov. Richard Snelling's proclamation cites the state's  libraries as "a unique chain of educational, cultural and recreational benefits to the residents of Vermont," and urges all residents to support their libraries. Go to your library, today for a good book or magazine, and support it all year long! I II III I Letters to the i ill I i . Tldngs going well in Minnesota To the Editor: Once again I have decided to sit down, and briug you up to date on what is going on in Grande Marais Minnesota. First off, last week. and the week before. I spent about four nights playing the Pep band as our basketball team at Cook County High made it to become the District Champs for the first time in the school's history. It was very exciting. One game we had two overtimes, and one by two excellent foul shots Then we lost in our 1st regional game, but it was fun, Now l am participating in track here. I am going to throw the shot put. I'm not real good yet. but I'm having ,. fun trying. I never realized ;% just how complicated it is to ** throw a shot put. On April 10th Tatiana, who is the Winter Program AFS ; student at Grand Marais from : Brazil. 14 other kids and myself are going to Madison, , Wisconsin on a short term  exchange. Then, in the 1st week of May, the kids from Madison (16) will be coming here. It should be really fun! We go to Duluth and take a train at 12:00 p.m.. then arrive in Madison, Wisconsin at 4:20  a.m. We will spend a week touring Madison and seeing ,: the sights including the zoo, tv station and many other things. So it should be a busy and fun  experience. On April 3rd, a jazz en- semble from Grand Rapids will be coming here to Grand Murals to put on a concert with our high school jazz band. Then there will be a dance, and three kids will be staying here at my home. It should be a really nice concert. I know our jazz band is good and hear theirs is. " :an't wait. This last weekend. Morn, Julie, Jimmy and I went over to some friends house, and teamed up with Park, Tim, Joanie and Jeff, to tap 40 Editor Mining at South Stratford According to local legends, ore deposits in this area were first discovered in 1793 in South Stratford, when two men who were gathering maple sap in the spring noticed brown color in the runoff from melting snow. In the early years, the Ore which had been discovered was valued mainly for its iron content. Some of it was sent to the newly-constructed iron- smelting furnace at Fran- conia, but it contained so much sulfur that it clogged the furnace. In 1809, however, manufacture of copperas was introduced by the Vermont Mineral Factory Company, succeeded by the Vermont Copperas Company, and the location became known as Copperas Hill. Copperas, an iron-sulfur substance, was prepared by passing water through the ore to leach out a solution from which a crust of crystals was removed. Cop- peras had many uses, such as in inks, paints, and dyes, and for tanning hides -- for which quantities were shipped west for the use of pioneer trappers and buffalo hunters. As the miners at South Stratford dug deeper, they began finding significant amounts of copper in the ore. Experimentation with copper During the 1800's there was considerable ex- perimentation in the United States in developing methods of copper ore concentration and smelling -- and much of it took place in South Stratford. The greatest progress here was made by Isaac Tyson, Jr., a chemical manufacturer from Baltimore. during the 1830's. Through Tyson's efforts. the production of copper reached about half a ton a day -- probably the largest in the country at that time -- but technical, transportation, and I I I I I I I I II Vote of con00d,n,00 good time trying everything To the Editor: even if we're not really suc- Frank Sahlman is my cessful, though I think if the friend, I have known him for weather gets a little warmer maxiy years. Sixteen of those during the day, we should get years he was the manager of alotofsap. Washington Electric Co- Our first try to tap a maple operative while I was the tree was not good. We tapped Member Relations Director. an ash tree! Then while During his years as tapping some more, we saw a manager the Co-operative was big tree. stuck a spout in it and brought from near bankruptcy it was a yellow Birch! But we figured out what a maple tree is now! Sa The snow has been steadily disappearing, and last week "fO was a really nice and warm r re.election week. This weekendand today To the Editor: have been cold, damp, I Have been a member of overcast and rainy. But last the Washington Electric Co- Sunday was good kite flying operative for many years as weather. Jimmy, Dad and I an owner ofa summer cottage took out a kite, and flew it on at Joe's Pond. This month the the lake. It really went up members have an opportunity there, and no need to worry to participate in an election to about trees to tangle up in or pick directors of the co- anything, operative who will best serve Well, I guess it's time I all our interests. stopped rambling on. I seem Frank Sahlman is one of the to be doing alright in school, present directors running for I'll know forsure, whenreport re-election. He is by far the cards come out at the end of most qualified candidate the week. picked by the nominating The chorus and band had a committee. You can be concert last Thursday. It assured his leadership, came off quite well. I think. I knowledge and experience has had fun, playing in both the been a factor in the present band and singing in the stability of the co-operative. chorus. I hope my friends who are Well, hope everyone is also members of the co- happy and well. operative will east a ballot Cynthia Underhill with me for the re-election of Piermont, N.H. Frank Sahlman. P.S Hi Morn, Dad, Calvin & Homer Fltts Correna. Oh yea, Mark too. Barre, Vt. to being a very respected organization. His leadership helped provide the strong base that made it possible for the Co-operative to get through the problems of the past few years. Many of the benefits that are realized today by the members of the co-operative are due to the policies and decisions that were made while Frank was the manager. As secretary of the "Committee for Lowest Cost Power", I was glad to see the support given him in the past as a candidate for trustee. I hope the members again give him their support and vote He has the type of experience in energy related matters that the Co-operative needs. Harvey Pilette Barre, Vt. Surprised by Bradford voters To the Editor: Surprised to learn that the voters in Bradford voted down the small sum of $1500 to the Cottage Hospital at Town Meeting. Cottage Hospital admitted 1265 in-patients and 7543 out- patients in the past year. Bradford numbered 103 in- patients or 8.1 percent and 618 out-patient or 8.2 percent. T. Borden Walker Woodsville 3OO.m00 of TotheEdltor: radioactive uranium and exposure any person would May I offer some solace and thorium, get in a life time spent within comfort to the eco4reaks, who This fact was graphically 50 miles of the Three Mile shiver in fear of the nuclear demonstrated by nuclear Island accident was the same electric plants, scientist Alvin Weinberg when as a resident of Denver, Dr. Arthur M. Beuche, .last he showed up with a Geiger Colorado gets every three year's winner of the American counter (an instrument used weeks from natural Institute of Chemists gold to measure radioactivity)to background radiation. medal award, sees a parallel testify in the granite sheathed The March 28, 1981 anti- := between today's nuclear Dirksen Senate Office nuclear demonstration at fphobia and the 17th century Building. (Inhabitants of the Harrisburg, Pa. was heavily ear of witches. Remember, granite states of Vermont and sprinkled with known corn- maple trees. Unfortunately Salem, Mass. where a New Hampshire, pack upand munistsympathizers. our weather has b,n cold and frightened people burned the prepare to flee.) When Senate The striking coal miners rainy so we haven t had much witches at the stake. Emergency Sub. Committee even were represented and 'sap run yet. But we're hoping. Radiation from a nuclear Chairman John Glenn heard well they might be. And then we intend to have a plant may be less than the the readings he exclaimed. This is a fact of which most big boiling down party with ground you walk on, or the "We are getting more people are unaware; a year's to dip in the buildinl in which you work. radiation right here in this supply of fuel for a l-million fro This brings to mind the building than they got down kilowatt nuclear plant can be and Vermont State capitol and the wind from the Three Mile brought to the plant in less sugar candy, ram- National Life building in Island nuclear electric plant, than 20 truck loads. The coal m,mm. Montpelier, especially if the The presidential commission for the same sized plant for  Its been funso far, and I bed rock or walls happen to be on Three Mile Island found the one year would require a expect we will have a really granite, which is often rich in actual average radiation string of hopper coal cars. 300 financial problems halted pants, and boots. Each man operations in 1837. Production wore a helmet with a miner's resumed off-and-ou after that time, being active during the Civil War. In the late 1870's, Isaac Tyson's son James came to South Strafford. He had inherited the family's copper mining interests and his father's yen for ex- perimentation, as did his son, James, Jr. They named the mine for James' wife, Elizabeth. Several Tyson descen- dants still live in Stratford, including the great grand- daughter of Isaac Tyson, Miss Rosa B. Tyson, who lives at the family home, "Buena Vista". on the copper mine road in South Strafford. Also, Rosa's sister, Elizabeth T. Wilson, has descendants in the area. In 1908, August Heekscher, a New Jersey zinc tycoon, completed a million- dollar project which included elaborate new equipment at the Elizabeth Mine, along with a new hydroelectric plant at Sharon to operate it. The project suddenly went up in smoke following an explosion in the furnace building. The furnace was rebuilt, but never went into successful operation. The power plant in Sharon went out in the 1927 flood. Mining was resumed in a small way during World War I and the years following, but stopped with the Depression. The nationwide copper shortage during World War It prompted a reevaluation and purchase of the Elizabeth Mine, along with those in Vershire and Corinth, by George A. Ellis, a New York lawyer who was a native of Vermont and was anxious to help Vermont realize its full potential in the war effort. Modern new plant Rehabilitation of the Elizabeth Mine and con- struction of a completely new processing plant began in 1942. and production began within a year. The mine and mill operated around-the- clock. During wartime labor shortages, the company brought in men from as far away as Newfoundland, but most of the employees com- muted from - neighboring towns, and included many descendants of the oldtime copper miners who had settled in the area. In the early 1950's the employment level reached its peak at nearly 250: peak annual production was 8.500,000 pounds. A com- parison with the Ely mine's peaks of 850 men and 3,IBG,000 pounds shows the labor- efficiency of modern technology, which produced almost ten times as much copper per man. Copper was produced as a 25 percent concentrate, a greenish-brown powder which was shipped to Long Island for smelting. Enough gold was extracted from the ore during smelting to pay the electric bills for the entire plant at South Strafford. When a national sulfur shortage occurred in 1950, arrangements were made with the Brown Company in Berlin. N.H. for delivery of 105,000 tons of pyrrhotite concentrate, a sulfur-iron residue from the copper- separation process. The mill at South Stratford was enlarged, and about a third of the failings was reworked to salvage the pyrrhotite for shipping to Berlin to make sulfur dioxide for manufac- turing paper. Inside the mine Charles Judd. Francis Clark. and others have recollections of what it was like working inside the Elizabeth Mine and the contrast between oldtime m!n)ng and the mechanized mmmg during the 1940's and '50's. Oidtime mining was a dirt.y business, and modern mmmg was no different in that respect. When a miner arrived for work. he headed first for the "change house", where he changed into his mining clothes, including long un- derwear, and rubber jacket, miles long; that would be 3- million tons of coal. Is it any wonder that the coal miners were at the anti-nuclear rally? M. Nevins Etowah. N.C. light on it so he had his hands free for his work. At the end of his shift he would shower and change back to his regular clothes, leaving the dust and dirt of the mine behind him. The entrance tunnel took the men 300 yards into the mine, where a nine-man elevator or "bucket" carried them down as much as a thousand feet in less than a minute. The inside of the hill was honeycombed with shafts and tunnels, stretching two miles horizontally. Through the cooperation of geologists, engineers, and miners, the veins of copper ore were followed and blasted out. For safety, the major blasting took place between shifts, but there were smaller blasts continually, day and night, using a ton of dynamite a day. The freshly-blasted ore or "muck" was hosed with water to keep down dust and gases, then was loaded and carried to the surface. The whole operation was mechanized -- the drills, the "mucking machine" that loaded the ore, the narrow- guage train that carried the ore out to the shaft, the "bucket" that carried ore to the surface, and the various cars and conveyors that carried the ore through crushers and into the flotation vats. The miner's oldtime basic tool, the pickax, was used only when a crew was laying new track The heat Of summer and cold of winter made no dif- ference deep inside the mine, as the temperature remained a steady 51 degrees, year- round. Separating the copper Aboveground, in the mill, the ore was crushed and ground into a fine powder, then combined with a mixture of water, pine oil and chemicals. The copper granules were attracted to the oily bubbles of this liquid, while waste material sank to the bottom and was removed. By this process, anywhere from 87 to 93 percent of the copper in the ore was saved. Everything else except the salvaged pyrrhotite went into the "failings pond", which gradually filled the valley below the mill. Safety problems Considering the size of the mining operation and the ever-present hazards of mining, there were very few accidents. One time two Newfoundlanders were killed at the 100-foot level when a huge piece of rock fell and crushed them. The same thing happened at the 300-foot level to two men from the local area. One of them was Clem Demers of Post Mills. It is ironic that he would have been done working in twoweeks. There was another ac- cident in which the wrong switch was thrown and the hoist went up instead of down, throwing an elevatorload of men up through the top of the head frame and dropping them 50 feet to the ground. Fortunately there was more than two feet of snow on the ground to help cushion their fall. Nobody was killed, but one man lost an arm and a leg. Nobody was ever killed by poisonous gases in the mine, although some were sick from them. The mine was always ventilated after each dynamite blast. Closing the mine in 1958 After producing a total of million pounds of copper in 15 years, the Elizabeth Mine finally closed in 1958. Until that time it was the oldest operating copper mine in the country, and. the only one in New England. Many former employees still live in the area and have gone back to far- ruing or to other jobs. There is nothing to see at the Elizabeth Mine now except decaying buildings, closed mine entrances, and the enormous tailings pond of granular waste material from the mill, changing its color wit h the seasons. (Note: Thanks to Charles and Carrie Judd of Stratford and Francis Clari of Union Village for their help. Infor- mation also came from Green Mountain Copper by Collamer Abbott, and from data com- piled by George Bassingth- waighte for the Vermont Copper Company. ) Vermont Secretary of State James H. Douglas When is a law not a law Did you know that Vermont licenses wild west shows and foot peddlers? These are some of the archaic laws still on the books in Vermont. The question of what is the law has tormented lawyers, judges and legal philosophers for centuries. On one point they all agree: a law is not a law if it isn't enforced. Vermont has many laws, most of them enforceable and enforced. There are a few laws, however, that are still on the books, but that fail to meet the tests of uniform enforceability, or fairness. It's my opinion they should he repealed, and I've begun that process by proposing bills repealing these laws to the 1981 General Assembly. There are two differ, ent laws, for in- stance, on peddlers and vendors, both with singular faults. The first problem with them is telling the difference between a peddler and a ven- dor. The laws aren't too clear except that local governments do have the authority to license vendors, in addition to the present State licensing system. For another thing, the licensing isn't being respected. Only a the state's travelling sales peo to register as peddlers last year than two dozen State licenses to vendors, and no peddlers at all by the State. The cost of maintaining State for both of these occupations is than the revenue taken in by the .' two or three times. The fact is, these are very have lost their usefulness over peddler statute first became law our vendor license in 1894. In they represent ideas that belong to of horse travel, times when were not known or available towns. The time has come to put them along with the law photographers, and the law wild west shows and menageries. U.S. Senate Report Gordon J. Humphrey Helpless little persons Abortion is an emotionally-charged subject hound to spark sharp debate and dissension. For years, it has been shunned in polite conversation. Now, however, all that is changing as the huge and growing number of abortions brings the issue to the forefront of public attention. Like President Reagan, I oppose abortion because I consider it tantamount to the taking of human life. I realize this places me in conflict with those who describe themselves as pro-choice, i.e., who say women have sovereign control over their own bodies. But I believe that in the case of abortion more than the woman's body is involved. The life of the unborn child is also at stake, and the Constitution very specifically protects the right of human life. Pro-abortionists, of course, dispute this view. They cite the 1973 Roe vs. Wade decision, in which the Supreme Court legalized abortion by stating that unborn human beings are not legal persons. However, many people who have analyzed this decision are convinced it is tragically flawed, and contradicts both elementary logic and the latest, most sophisticated medical evidence available. Actually, Roe vs. Wade bears an ugly resemblance to the horribly racist Dred Scott decision of 1857. This was the'case in which the Supreme Court decided while Dred Scott, a black man, may have looked like a person, and even acted like one, he was still only a form of property and thus not entitled to the protection of the Con- stitution. It is an ugly parallel, but an accurate one nevertheless. It is logically irrefutable that the off- spring of human beings are human beings, and that life begins when the cells of a man and woman unite. To attempt to argue that these cells can unite and yet not be human until some later, arbitrary, court- determined date is simply ludicrous. Consider the words of Dr. Bernard Nathanson, who once headed the Center for Reproductive and Sexual Health, called by Good Housekeeping licensed abortion facility in the world." He said: "I became that as director of the clinic 1 presided over 60,000 deaths.. six weeks we can detect heart embryos with an can record brain activity at Our capacity to measure signs becoming more sophisticated and as time goes by able to isolate those signs at earlier stages in fetal vehemently deny that life conception begins is absurd..." The product of conception is being in a special time of its part of a continuum that be uterus, passes through adolescence and adulthood, and death. The fact that a fetus de placenta for life doesn't existence as a hmnan being." Some people claim that pose abortion are blinded by their beliefs. Certainly it is true that was condemned in both the the Old Testament in writings. But these foree in :aient: Greece, example, the Oath of Hil doctors to swear they would abortions. Actually, abortion demned as far back as 1728 Code of Hammurabi. Western civilization has rooted in certain fundam values, the most important protection of innocent human life. year, in modern, "civilized" more than one and a half millio were sacrificed under the guise planning, or simply as a means personal inconvenience. can we close our eyes to this carnage, rationalizing it all away statistics, rather than hel persons. Lieutenant Governor's Madeleine Kunin, {D-Vt.) Fragile layer of civilization We know that under the fragile layer of civilization, chaos tosses and turns, ready to erupt without notice. We comfort ourselves, nevertheless, with the conviction that if we lead orderly lives, these dark forces of violence will remain under control. If you watch for the ' green light, you won't be hit by a car, we tell our children. And if you learn to say "please" and "thank you", the world will treat you kindly. But when the shots ring out and bodies fall in slow motion on the television screen, that layer of civilization is momentarily ruptured, and we are afraid. In morbid fascination we watch the same video tape again and again, looking for some clue which will tell us how the world could be transformed so in- stantaneously. One moment the President is smiling, hand raised in confident greeting, and suddenly, the scene changes. Crackling sounds fill the air. We see pain, chaos, and fear, arising out of nowhere--a hand in the crowd. The assault on the United States, his press two law enforcement officers is an assault on authorit act which pains each one of deprives us of our sense of world. The world looked different second when the shots rang piece it back together again, outrage with one another. damage to our souls by humdrum routines, by driving the highway and listening reports which will tell us day's sky will bring. Finally, we tell ourselves an isolated senseless act relationship to our lives. after such an act of violence, civilization which we have over our world seems fragile than before. Red Cross Bloodmobile in BRADFORD--On Friday, most successful. Area draws amatic of April 17, the Vermont-New begin regularly in 1951 to needs. On a Hampshire Red Cross support local hospitals and 85#00 pints Bloodmobile will be coming to blood needs of those involved This year, to 1 Bradford. The drawing will he in the Korean conflict. Open your held at the Oxbow High School heart surgery, kidney goal of 95 Auditorium from 12 noon to 5 dialysis, kidney transplants, drawing. p.m. pharesus are the most - This drawing will be the Blood drive first in Bradford during the Red Cross's 100th year in the ORFORD--The Senior Class "drive is United States. You are invited of Orford High School and the first blood I to come and help celebrate by American Red Cross will over20yea donating, sponsor a blood drive June 3 If you ar I The National Blood from l:30-Sp.m, inMemorial years of age Program began in 1947, two Hall, Orford. health, you a years later saw the formal All types of blood are give. Donors start of the Vt.-N.H. Blood needed. The goal of the blood Fairlee, Program, one of the nations