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June 2, 1982     Journal Opinion
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biologist Bert Drake has tured a marsh near the Maryland into a "living laboratory" for his studies in a community of salt marsh plants. Drake uses a make measurements on Spartina, a common in salt marshes along the Atlantic Coast. Spun_ky, salt-lovina plants may hold key to globaIfood needs by MADELEINEJACOBS plagued with salinity Spartina patens, commonly to keep salt from their salinity affects many aspects There are particularlylarge Smithsonian News Service Just across the California border in the Mexicali Valley, the farmers are still bitter. For decades, their valley has been one of Mexico's most fertile and productive agricultural oases, relying on the life-giving irrigation waters of the nearby Colorado River. But a not-so-funny thing happened to the mighty Colorado on its way to Mexico. Over the years, as it was in- creasingly manipulated to supply water for a thirsty U.S. population in the West and Southwest, the river picked up salt--lots of it. After a 1,400- mile-trip southward, the brackish waters were simply too salty for some crops. By the late 1960s, some lush areas had been transformed into barren stretches, virtual seas of salt where nothing would grow. Although Mexico and the United States signed an agreement on salinity control in 1973, only now has that land begun to recover its former productivity. It is an ancient problem--its solution, an ancient dream. As early as 2400 B.C., increasing soil salinity hurried the decline of the thriving, agriculture-oriented Sumerian civilization. Today, some 130 million acres of the world's irrigated lands are problems. And yet, scientists have long dreamed of agricultural uses for seawater, which covers four-fifths of the globe but is now worthless for irrigation purposes: Only a fraction of the Earth's thousands of plant species can tolerate even one- tenth the salt concentration of ocean water. But there are some plants that not only tolerate salt--they thrive on it. And, as a number of scientists now believe, this relative handful may be a botanical blessing, holding the key to feeding the world's growing population. "For thousands of years, we've been able to move away from salt-affected lands," explains Dr. Jack Gallagher, an ecologist at the University of Delaware College of Marine Studies in Lewes. "Now we've run out of new land to replace the salinized acres. So while we used to adapt the land to the plants we had, now we have to adapt plants to the land we have." For Gallagher, this means looking at plants in his own backyard-- the Delaware marshes, part of the long green ribbon of soft, salty, wet, low-lying land lining virtually the entire Atlantic coast. Dominating these marshes are two grasses-- Spartina alterniflora and known as cord grass and salt hay grass, respectively. From Colonial times until early in this century, these marsh plants were prized by farmers for their high yields of hay. So valued were the marshes for livestock fodder that, one story goes, in the 17th century armed men from Massachusetts routinely raided hay from the New Hampshire marshes. Gallagher and others believe that marsh plants and other salt-loving plants that normally grow well in saline, arid soils could once again assume economic importance, especially in countries where irrigation has created salinity problems. In some irrigated lands in Egypt, for instance, soil salinity has reached critical levels for many traditional crops. There, Gallagher has been looking at a variety of marsh plants, including cord grass and salt grass (Distichlis spieata), as well as an inland desert plant of the genus Atriplex, as potential forage for water buffalo and goats. So far, the results look promising. , Despite their appeal, salt- tolerant plants-- or halophytes, from the Gt'eek words for salt, halos, and plant, phyte-- remain something of a mystery. Unlike other plants, which try systems completely, halophytes are able to absorb and deal with salt in a number of ways so that it will not be toxic to their systems. "It is well known that of plant metabolism, anatomy and structure," Gallagher says, "but the precise details of how halophytes do what they do are not well un- derstood." gaps in understanding how halophytes have adapted photosynthesis-- the process by which plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and (please turn to page 4A) Smithsonian News Service Photos by M.E Warren Drake studies the capacity of plants to hold water. Extremely high pressures are needed to force water from a blade of Spartina, which llke other salt marsh grasses holds onto water tightly. Using a magnifier, Drake observes a tiny droplet being squeezed from a blade of grass. Drake's research is aimed at uncovering the fun- damental processes that allow some plants to adapt to--and even thrive in--salty environments which are not tolerated by the vast majority of plants. 8 2'2 Serving Over 48 Communities in Northern New Hampshlre and Vermont June 2, 1982 t or Buying wees and their condition will determine Many plants marketed in how well they'll grow after attractive wrappers with planting, moist packing around the Mail-order trees and shrubs roots are displayed in garden stores, department stores or supermarkets. These plants usually are at their best when first displayed but after several weeks in warm temperatures in a dark store they sprout or the stems may dry out. The soft sprouts may trees are nurseries, nent nur- you buy? and con- Will they garden? You on poor grow. generally s. Mail order stores or fly offer and are usually small. They're shorter and usually have fewer branches with thinner stems. Plants are often grown dense keeping them light- weight to avoid high postage for shipping. These are shipped without soil but with moist packing around the roots, or the plants are in moisture-proof packages. Mail-order plants should be planted immediately upon receipt. But if you can't, store them in a cool, non-freezing place until planting. such as sawdust or bark or in a 8hrb plastic bag to pit the sell ball from drying. In some nurseries they are displayed o with no packing or plastic to Carefully examine buds and prevent drying. If the soil bah stems. They should appear dries on the surface the new plump and not shriveled, rootlets forming near the edge Healthy-looking plants with of the ball are killed. a soil ball or growing in a Ask your nurseryman container in an outdoor whether their shrubs or trees display may cost a little more were transplanted or root- but will usually transplant pruned during growth. Root- easier and may be worth the pruning insures amm'e dense extra price. Balled and root system which encourages burlapped plants should be rapid establishment in the displayed in moist packing new planting. usually die in the garden resultiug in a weakened plant. Help an Elm and Plastic bags or a wax coating over stems help tax break prevent drying of buds and twigs. Purchase packaged get a plants within a few days after they're firs{ displayed. HARRISVILLE,r" N.H.-- Are deduction for what you spend NEWS is a reQ;stered trademark of THE MOTHER EARTH NEWS, fIN-RICH VEGETABLES! tasty, free-for-the-picking to be found in fields, in vacant and even shooting up edible wild greens {Chenopodium album}. This of spinach (also known as has jagged, diamond- with powdery-feeling, white- Remember, though, that eat any wild food until you have positively identified it as edible. guidebooks to wild plants are listed at the end of this article.) Harvest from plants no more than a foot high, or pick the youngest (up- from more mature specimens. The delicately flavored leaves can be , recipe calling for spinach. earned a lot of names (including careless weed, retireeS, and, (Amaranthus retroflexus and hybridus). This extremely are borne on long stalks, and a root. An excellent hunting ground for amaranth is the space between crops. The young leaves are favored as salad makings, but the when fried, steamed, creamed, or boiled and served with a Sauce. among foragers is  (Portulaca oleracea), better known wee shoot out from a plant that rarely grows over horizontally, on fleshy, reddish-purpls stems, with a yen- taste good served raw in salads or sandwiches, cooked in meat or added as s thickener to soups and gumbos. re of winter_ cress is its availability during cold weather. is also called scurvy grass, upland cress, and spring tonic. This reach a height of over two feet. The youngest leaves make a salad green, while the more mature blades serve well as boiled or In addition, in late spring you can pick some of the unopened boil them for five minutes, and serve up some delicious "wild other flavorful wild greens: dandelion, curled dock, milkweed, wild grapes, shepherd's purse, wood sorrel, chickweed, chicory.., and on and on. So gather.., and enjoy! A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants {Houghton Mifflin, the Wild Asparagus {David McKay, $5.95), and Billy & Field Guide {Workman, $5.95) are three good ref- These books can be found in many libraries, good bookstores or-- {$2.00 for three or more items) shipping and handling 's Bookshelf P.O. Box 70, Hendersonville, N.C 28791. d foods or on.THE MOTHER EARTH NEWS magazine, send your name h Cattail?" Mail to Doing MORE... With LESSL P.O. Box paper, NEWS. Inc. you one of the few who has an American elm in your yard or street extension? Do you want to keep it alive, and healthy? Good news! Elm Research Institute will not only help you keep your elm, but they will also help you get a tax on treatment I Elm Research Institute was founded in 1964 for the purpose of financing Dutch elm disease research, and saving the American elm from ex- tinction. A non-profit in- stitution, it has funded research grants totaling more 6FAMILY than a million dollars to laboratories in several YARD SALE American universities. Ackerman's, Fairlee, Vt. Out of this research, a safe Sat., June 5 -- 9 a.m. - 4 and effective fungicide has p.m. next to interstate -- been developed which follow signs.  (please turn to page 6A) iffu e Co r s by Carol Rt. I0, No. Haverhill, N.H. (603) 787-6950 INTODUCES A LITTLE SOMElllING GIFT SHOP ALL GIFTS UNDER $10. BEEJAYS TROPICAL FISH CENTER Control St, Weodsville, N.H. Come in to see our African Grey Timneh Psrrot HURRY, IT WILL lie LEAVING OUR STORE SOON FOR ITS' NEW HOMIEI Hours, Sun., 1-5; Mort.. 10:30 - 5; Tues., 10=30 - S; Wed., closed; Thurs., 10,30- S; Fri., 10:30 - 8; Sot., 10- S. J FENCES-Stockade, Round&SplitRaii Build your own or we install. GREEN FROG GARDEN CENTER BRADFORD, VT. (852) 222-5595 HAPPY BIRTHDAY NORMA DOWNING! Happy Birthday To A Special Person RUTH KEATING! Know your potatoes by Winston A. Way " Anyone can grow potatoes. UVM Extension Agronomist Potatoes are a versatile food with a long history stretching back to native South Americans, then perhaps reaching New England via Europe. Many of our Irish ancestors came here as a result of blighted potatoes, which reduced this important food staple on which they had become so dependent. Today, potatoes are still a food staple but they appear in the form of chips, french fries, and Idaho bakers i=tead of the simpler boiled form. Potatoes are one of the few garden crops, other than onions that we grow from vegetative parts. This is analogous to cloning humans. Potato tubers are actually underground stems, swelled with stored food reserves. This is why they turn green when exposed to light. Since potatoes belong to the nightshade family, they have the same tendency to produce powerful alkaloids in their stems that are harmful to humans and animals. This alkaloid is associated with the green color. Therefore, potatoes should be kept from light during growth as well as storage. Thus, potatoes are hilled with soil after the tubers develop. Or you may grow a crop in a trench covered with a thick layer of straw to ex- clude light. Potatoes flower and form seeds after receiving pollen from other potato flowers. However, each seed will represent a new individual different from the mother plant. Thus a potato grown from seed never is the same variety as the mother although it may have some similarities as children do towards their parents. By using tubers for planting, you are always assured of each new plant being exactly like its parent because they are vegetatively the same. Thus, the variety Early Cobbler is always Early Cobbler. Early Vermonters did a lot of experimenting by crossing potato pollen from one tuber to another. Out of such work came the famous Green Mountain noted for its baking quality Future growers were assured of uniformity by vegetative propagation and so the potato is the same as that created many years ago. Propagation by tubers also insures a fast start in spring. Sprouts are vigorous and have a ready food supply. Seed pieces of I. to 2 ounces will grow anywhere, even on the top of a compost pile. They are a sure crop. This year gardeners are being extolled the virtues of growing potatoes from the extremely small seeds. But the flowery ads didn't say you'd have to start them in- KU MARKET ' Thefford Hill Green Sot., June 5 10:00 to 2:00 Benefit of Thetford Hill Improvement Society Make A Memorable Occasion =/ven more so.. with a gift that lasts forevel ' --GOLD & SILVER JEWILRY ,/  - -- INDIAN JEWELRY "1 "" ","" SUNSHINE BOUTIOUE ^602.-48 2933 71 Eastern Ave., St. Johnst)ury PREFERRED HOMEOWNERS from Vermont RATES IN BRADFORD. FAIRLEE, STRAFFORD, & THETFORD. $40,000 Home ......... from $14600 UP to $182.00. Horn  o few m $60.000 Hmr ........ from $214.00 uo to S267.00. US. WE WILL BE HAPPY TO QUOTE YOU A PRIOE TO PROTECT YOUR HOME. LUCIEN L. BOURBEAU INSURANCE AGENCY FAHtUEE, VBtMOKI 802-333-9224 doors, transplant small seedlings to a small pot, then transplant again to your garden The plants will be no faster than tomatoes to grow so you'll have to pamper them for weeks before you even start the gardening part of their growth. The result of starting seeds also means that no two plants will give you the same kind of potatoes. You are not apt to find the taste of a Cobbler, the mealiness of a Green Mountain, the salad making ability of a Katahdin, the red skin of a Norland. the earliness of a Superior or the large size, whiteness and french frying capability of a They are a fascinating plant great for children to grow too. They are super for edible landscape, making an in- teresting foundation planting or fence row border. They survive most neglect but do succumb to blights and the Colorado potato beetle. Dusting with dolomitic limestone or a natural in- secticide should help control the insect. A garden fungicide should prevent blight. To grow potatoes in the garden simply make a groove about 6 inches deep. Drop a potato seed piece about every foot and place 4 tablespoonfuls of garden fertilizer ta small handful} half way between seed pieces. Cover the row with about 2 inches of soil. Cover a little more as you cultivate and at blossom time when tubers form. start to heap up (hill) the soil around the plant to keep the sunlight away. Harvest a few potatoes to go with new peas by fingering the potatoes". This means stealing a couple from each hill without disrupting the whole plant, like stealing an egg from a hen. The mother plant may then grow another. Make your main harvest by digging in September after the plants are dead. Store them in a dark cool (35 degrees--40 degrees F) place and enjoy ! Kennebec. t. 00REEN FOR SALE TOP SOIL/LOAM FROG GARDEN CENTER BRADFORD, VT. (802) 222-5595 PREFERRED HOMEOwNERS from New Hompshire RATES IN LYME, ORFORD, AND PIERMONT. Horn ore o few oxample$, 140.000 Home .......... f'om $185.00 up to $206.00. $60,000 Hon .......... fm $243,00 up to $271,00, CALL US, WE WILL BE HAPPY TO QUOTE YOU A PRICE TO PROTECT YOUR HOME LUCIEN L. BOURBEAU INSURANCE AGENCY FHRLIEL VERMONT 802-333-9224 AMBITIOUS PEOPLE Do you ha vo manwemlmt or teQchiag skills?... A'e. yOu tired of working for someone .se?, .. e  interested m Hodth& Nutnttm?... Would  like an opprtumty tO be firqmlly secure &wock pOrt-fl? so, pkm, p I, r=...=    to Oqn, S t 2 /. Sed o, IInMtb, Vt, SSQ$,I -- We win edleedwt ep 1free fer elintervlew. WANTED USED BOATS & MOTORS in good condition. Will sell on commission, Fairies Marina, Re. 5, Fairies, Vt. 802-333-9745. Mon.-Sat. -- 8 to 5. biologist Bert Drake has tured a marsh near the Maryland into a "living laboratory" for his studies in a community of salt marsh plants. Drake uses a make measurements on Spartina, a common in salt marshes along the Atlantic Coast. Spun_ky, salt-lovina plants may hold key to globaIfood needs by MADELEINEJACOBS plagued with salinity Spartina patens, commonly to keep salt from their salinity affects many aspects There are particularlylarge Smithsonian News Service Just across the California border in the Mexicali Valley, the farmers are still bitter. For decades, their valley has been one of Mexico's most fertile and productive agricultural oases, relying on the life-giving irrigation waters of the nearby Colorado River. But a not-so-funny thing happened to the mighty Colorado on its way to Mexico. Over the years, as it was in- creasingly manipulated to supply water for a thirsty U.S. population in the West and Southwest, the river picked up salt--lots of it. After a 1,400- mile-trip southward, the brackish waters were simply too salty for some crops. By the late 1960s, some lush areas had been transformed into barren stretches, virtual seas of salt where nothing would grow. Although Mexico and the United States signed an agreement on salinity control in 1973, only now has that land begun to recover its former productivity. It is an ancient problem--its solution, an ancient dream. As early as 2400 B.C., increasing soil salinity hurried the decline of the thriving, agriculture-oriented Sumerian civilization. Today, some 130 million acres of the world's irrigated lands are problems. And yet, scientists have long dreamed of agricultural uses for seawater, which covers four-fifths of the globe but is now worthless for irrigation purposes: Only a fraction of the Earth's thousands of plant species can tolerate even one- tenth the salt concentration of ocean water. But there are some plants that not only tolerate salt--they thrive on it. And, as a number of scientists now believe, this relative handful may be a botanical blessing, holding the key to feeding the world's growing population. "For thousands of years, we've been able to move away from salt-affected lands," explains Dr. Jack Gallagher, an ecologist at the University of Delaware College of Marine Studies in Lewes. "Now we've run out of new land to replace the salinized acres. So while we used to adapt the land to the plants we had, now we have to adapt plants to the land we have." For Gallagher, this means looking at plants in his own backyard-- the Delaware marshes, part of the long green ribbon of soft, salty, wet, low-lying land lining virtually the entire Atlantic coast. Dominating these marshes are two grasses-- Spartina alterniflora and known as cord grass and salt hay grass, respectively. From Colonial times until early in this century, these marsh plants were prized by farmers for their high yields of hay. So valued were the marshes for livestock fodder that, one story goes, in the 17th century armed men from Massachusetts routinely raided hay from the New Hampshire marshes. Gallagher and others believe that marsh plants and other salt-loving plants that normally grow well in saline, arid soils could once again assume economic importance, especially in countries where irrigation has created salinity problems. In some irrigated lands in Egypt, for instance, soil salinity has reached critical levels for many traditional crops. There, Gallagher has been looking at a variety of marsh plants, including cord grass and salt grass (Distichlis spieata), as well as an inland desert plant of the genus Atriplex, as potential forage for water buffalo and goats. So far, the results look promising. , Despite their appeal, salt- tolerant plants-- or halophytes, from the Gt'eek words for salt, halos, and plant, phyte-- remain something of a mystery. Unlike other plants, which try systems completely, halophytes are able to absorb and deal with salt in a number of ways so that it will not be toxic to their systems. "It is well known that of plant metabolism, anatomy and structure," Gallagher says, "but the precise details of how halophytes do what they do are not well un- derstood." gaps in understanding how halophytes have adapted photosynthesis-- the process by which plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and (please turn to page 4A) Smithsonian News Service Photos by M.E Warren Drake studies the capacity of plants to hold water. Extremely high pressures are needed to force water from a blade of Spartina, which llke other salt marsh grasses holds onto water tightly. Using a magnifier, Drake observes a tiny droplet being squeezed from a blade of grass. Drake's research is aimed at uncovering the fun- damental processes that allow some plants to adapt to--and even thrive in--salty environments which are not tolerated by the vast majority of plants. 8 2'2 Serving Over 48 Communities in Northern New Hampshlre and Vermont June 2, 1982 t or Buying wees and their condition will determine Many plants marketed in how well they'll grow after attractive wrappers with planting, moist packing around the Mail-order trees and shrubs roots are displayed in garden stores, department stores or supermarkets. These plants usually are at their best when first displayed but after several weeks in warm temperatures in a dark store they sprout or the stems may dry out. The soft sprouts may trees are nurseries, nent nur- you buy? and con- Will they garden? You on poor grow. generally s. Mail order stores or fly offer and are usually small. They're shorter and usually have fewer branches with thinner stems. Plants are often grown dense keeping them light- weight to avoid high postage for shipping. These are shipped without soil but with moist packing around the roots, or the plants are in moisture-proof packages. Mail-order plants should be planted immediately upon receipt. But if you can't, store them in a cool, non-freezing place until planting. such as sawdust or bark or in a 8hrb plastic bag to pit the sell ball from drying. In some nurseries they are displayed o with no packing or plastic to Carefully examine buds and prevent drying. If the soil bah stems. They should appear dries on the surface the new plump and not shriveled, rootlets forming near the edge Healthy-looking plants with of the ball are killed. a soil ball or growing in a Ask your nurseryman container in an outdoor whether their shrubs or trees display may cost a little more were transplanted or root- but will usually transplant pruned during growth. Root- easier and may be worth the pruning insures amm'e dense extra price. Balled and root system which encourages burlapped plants should be rapid establishment in the displayed in moist packing new planting. usually die in the garden resultiug in a weakened plant. Help an Elm and Plastic bags or a wax coating over stems help tax break prevent drying of buds and twigs. Purchase packaged get a plants within a few days after they're firs{ displayed. HARRISVILLE,r" N.H.-- Are deduction for what you spend NEWS is a reQ;stered trademark of THE MOTHER EARTH NEWS, fIN-RICH VEGETABLES! tasty, free-for-the-picking to be found in fields, in vacant and even shooting up edible wild greens {Chenopodium album}. This of spinach (also known as has jagged, diamond- with powdery-feeling, white- Remember, though, that eat any wild food until you have positively identified it as edible. guidebooks to wild plants are listed at the end of this article.) Harvest from plants no more than a foot high, or pick the youngest (up- from more mature specimens. The delicately flavored leaves can be , recipe calling for spinach. earned a lot of names (including careless weed, retireeS, and, (Amaranthus retroflexus and hybridus). This extremely are borne on long stalks, and a root. An excellent hunting ground for amaranth is the space between crops. The young leaves are favored as salad makings, but the when fried, steamed, creamed, or boiled and served with a Sauce. among foragers is  (Portulaca oleracea), better known wee shoot out from a plant that rarely grows over horizontally, on fleshy, reddish-purpls stems, with a yen- taste good served raw in salads or sandwiches, cooked in meat or added as s thickener to soups and gumbos. re of winter_ cress is its availability during cold weather. is also called scurvy grass, upland cress, and spring tonic. This reach a height of over two feet. The youngest leaves make a salad green, while the more mature blades serve well as boiled or In addition, in late spring you can pick some of the unopened boil them for five minutes, and serve up some delicious "wild other flavorful wild greens: dandelion, curled dock, milkweed, wild grapes, shepherd's purse, wood sorrel, chickweed, chicory.., and on and on. So gather.., and enjoy! A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants {Houghton Mifflin, the Wild Asparagus {David McKay, $5.95), and Billy & Field Guide {Workman, $5.95) are three good ref- These books can be found in many libraries, good bookstores or-- {$2.00 for three or more items) shipping and handling 's Bookshelf P.O. Box 70, Hendersonville, N.C 28791. d foods or on.THE MOTHER EARTH NEWS magazine, send your name h Cattail?" Mail to Doing MORE... With LESSL P.O. Box paper, NEWS. Inc. you one of the few who has an American elm in your yard or street extension? Do you want to keep it alive, and healthy? Good news! Elm Research Institute will not only help you keep your elm, but they will also help you get a tax on treatment I Elm Research Institute was founded in 1964 for the purpose of financing Dutch elm disease research, and saving the American elm from ex- tinction. A non-profit in- stitution, it has funded research grants totaling more 6FAMILY than a million dollars to laboratories in several YARD SALE American universities. Ackerman's, Fairlee, Vt. Out of this research, a safe Sat., June 5 -- 9 a.m. - 4 and effective fungicide has p.m. next to interstate -- been developed which follow signs.  (please turn to page 6A) iffu e Co r s by Carol Rt. I0, No. Haverhill, N.H. (603) 787-6950 INTODUCES A LITTLE SOMElllING GIFT SHOP ALL GIFTS UNDER $10. BEEJAYS TROPICAL FISH CENTER Control St, Weodsville, N.H. Come in to see our African Grey Timneh Psrrot HURRY, IT WILL lie LEAVING OUR STORE SOON FOR ITS' NEW HOMIEI Hours, Sun., 1-5; Mort.. 10:30 - 5; Tues., 10=30 - S; Wed., closed; Thurs., 10,30- S; Fri., 10:30 - 8; Sot., 10- S. J FENCES-Stockade, Round&SplitRaii Build your own or we install. GREEN FROG GARDEN CENTER BRADFORD, VT. (852) 222-5595 HAPPY BIRTHDAY NORMA DOWNING! Happy Birthday To A Special Person RUTH KEATING! Know your potatoes by Winston A. Way " Anyone can grow potatoes. UVM Extension Agronomist Potatoes are a versatile food with a long history stretching back to native South Americans, then perhaps reaching New England via Europe. Many of our Irish ancestors came here as a result of blighted potatoes, which reduced this important food staple on which they had become so dependent. Today, potatoes are still a food staple but they appear in the form of chips, french fries, and Idaho bakers i=tead of the simpler boiled form. Potatoes are one of the few garden crops, other than onions that we grow from vegetative parts. This is analogous to cloning humans. Potato tubers are actually underground stems, swelled with stored food reserves. This is why they turn green when exposed to light. Since potatoes belong to the nightshade family, they have the same tendency to produce powerful alkaloids in their stems that are harmful to humans and animals. This alkaloid is associated with the green color. Therefore, potatoes should be kept from light during growth as well as storage. Thus, potatoes are hilled with soil after the tubers develop. Or you may grow a crop in a trench covered with a thick layer of straw to ex- clude light. Potatoes flower and form seeds after receiving pollen from other potato flowers. However, each seed will represent a new individual different from the mother plant. Thus a potato grown from seed never is the same variety as the mother although it may have some similarities as children do towards their parents. By using tubers for planting, you are always assured of each new plant being exactly like its parent because they are vegetatively the same. Thus, the variety Early Cobbler is always Early Cobbler. Early Vermonters did a lot of experimenting by crossing potato pollen from one tuber to another. Out of such work came the famous Green Mountain noted for its baking quality Future growers were assured of uniformity by vegetative propagation and so the potato is the same as that created many years ago. Propagation by tubers also insures a fast start in spring. Sprouts are vigorous and have a ready food supply. Seed pieces of I. to 2 ounces will grow anywhere, even on the top of a compost pile. They are a sure crop. This year gardeners are being extolled the virtues of growing potatoes from the extremely small seeds. But the flowery ads didn't say you'd have to start them in- KU MARKET ' Thefford Hill Green Sot., June 5 10:00 to 2:00 Benefit of Thetford Hill Improvement Society Make A Memorable Occasion =/ven more so.. with a gift that lasts forevel ' --GOLD & SILVER JEWILRY ,/  - -- INDIAN JEWELRY "1 "" ","" SUNSHINE BOUTIOUE ^602.-48 2933 71 Eastern Ave., St. Johnst)ury PREFERRED HOMEOWNERS from Vermont RATES IN BRADFORD. FAIRLEE, STRAFFORD, & THETFORD. $40,000 Home ......... from $14600 UP to $182.00. Horn  o few m $60.000 Hmr ........ from $214.00 uo to S267.00. US. WE WILL BE HAPPY TO QUOTE YOU A PRIOE TO PROTECT YOUR HOME. LUCIEN L. BOURBEAU INSURANCE AGENCY FAHtUEE, VBtMOKI 802-333-9224 doors, transplant small seedlings to a small pot, then transplant again to your garden The plants will be no faster than tomatoes to grow so you'll have to pamper them for weeks before you even start the gardening part of their growth. The result of starting seeds also means that no two plants will give you the same kind of potatoes. You are not apt to find the taste of a Cobbler, the mealiness of a Green Mountain, the salad making ability of a Katahdin, the red skin of a Norland. the earliness of a Superior or the large size, whiteness and french frying capability of a They are a fascinating plant great for children to grow too. They are super for edible landscape, making an in- teresting foundation planting or fence row border. They survive most neglect but do succumb to blights and the Colorado potato beetle. Dusting with dolomitic limestone or a natural in- secticide should help control the insect. A garden fungicide should prevent blight. To grow potatoes in the garden simply make a groove about 6 inches deep. Drop a potato seed piece about every foot and place 4 tablespoonfuls of garden fertilizer ta small handful} half way between seed pieces. Cover the row with about 2 inches of soil. Cover a little more as you cultivate and at blossom time when tubers form. start to heap up (hill) the soil around the plant to keep the sunlight away. Harvest a few potatoes to go with new peas by fingering the potatoes". This means stealing a couple from each hill without disrupting the whole plant, like stealing an egg from a hen. The mother plant may then grow another. Make your main harvest by digging in September after the plants are dead. Store them in a dark cool (35 degrees--40 degrees F) place and enjoy ! Kennebec. t. 00REEN FOR SALE TOP SOIL/LOAM FROG GARDEN CENTER BRADFORD, VT. (802) 222-5595 PREFERRED HOMEOwNERS from New Hompshire RATES IN LYME, ORFORD, AND PIERMONT. Horn ore o few oxample$, 140.000 Home .......... f'om $185.00 up to $206.00. $60,000 Hon .......... fm $243,00 up to $271,00, CALL US, WE WILL BE HAPPY TO QUOTE YOU A PRICE TO PROTECT YOUR HOME LUCIEN L. 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