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July 22, 1981     Journal Opinion
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] I ! Smithsonian News Service Photo courtesy of Art, Photographs of Artists Collection One Oral histories offset decline in letters and diaries by DavidM. Maxfield recollections of the nation's Since then, the technique "the method stimulates discuss that.  be questioned in a relaxed, information about certain Smithsonian News Service decision-makers and pace- Historians and archivists setters. ar)e concerned: Americans Pioneered at Columbia arewriting fewer letters these University in the late 1940s, days and for the most part no the first so-called oral history longer keeping diaries, once interviews recorded the invaluable research sources memoirs of political and for piecing together the past. military leaders who had To help counter this loss, participated in World War II, however, many professionals Gens. Dwight D. Eisenhower are turning on their tape and Omar N. Bradley among recorders to capture the others. Playing major roles in making New York the capital of contemporary art during the 1950s were these two artists, Helen Frankenthaler and Hans Hof- mann, photographed then in their studios. Known as Abstract Expressionists, these and other artists, who recalled that special decade for the Archives of American Art oral history program, valued the creative act of painting itself. has become a valuable resource for such organizations as the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art, where millions of original research materials deeded by artists, collectors, critics and others document U.S. cultural history. The Archives' collection of talks- on-tape, for example, helps chart how New York City became the world capital of contemporary art in the 1950s. And now thousands of families and local history buffs also are finding tape cassettes useful tools for puzzling together their own heritage. The principles and benefits--not to mention potential pitfalls--involved in taping the histories apply to both the professional researcher and the amateur genealogical sleuth. "At its best," says Garnett McCoy, senior curator of the Archives, spontaneity which, under Besides this sort of in- informed probing by a terruption, faulty memories detached but sympathetic and lack of objectivity also questioner, produces un- studied and revealing recollections." The secret of the successful interview, one veteran of the technique maintains, is "an abiding interest in people, an interest which puts them at ease and encourages a good flow of conversation." can flaw an interview Then, too, some subjects may insist on their own self-serving version of the past: still others wander through a maze of irrelevant trivia. While written and printed material remains the "bread and butter" of research for most historians, the taped But things can and do go interview, McCoy believes, wrong. "A 1959 interview in offers one quality often the Archives' collection with missing in a collection of the American realist painter papers--"the vivid detail, the Edward Hopper produced graphic phrase, the element of little more than a series of color expressed in spon- blunt "yes" and "no" replies taneous conversation." to questions about the theme Ideally, he adds, the in- of his work--loneliness and terviews are supplementary alienation in America. At last, research tools, one record when Hopper, eager to talk among others in an in- about prices his paintings dividual's personal papers. were commanding, began to In taping the interview, open upa bit, Mrs. Hoppercut Archives' staff members in, "Edward! Don't you recommend that the subject unstructured manner At the same time, the interviewer must know exactly what type of information is needed in order to guide the con- versation along. And the in- terviewer should recognize the significance of off-hand remarks and references so they can be pursued, ex- panded upon and pinned down. The ultimate success or failure of an interview, McCoy says, depends on the tact, persistence anci experience of the interviewer, but as im- portant as these qualities are, the most important ingredient is preliminary homework. "The more the interviewer knows about the field in which his respondent is a figure, the greater will be the respect and cooperation he inspires." In reconstructing the past, the more interviews that can be taped the better. A talk with one person will provide events, other individuals and trends--from rthat in- terviewee's vantage point. Two interviews touching on the same subject will produce a more balanced picture, McCoy says, and a whole series of talks will enable the historian to sift, compare and analyze with a "reasonable assurance of arriving at the truth." Historians and archivists experienced with oral history projects offer the following additional pointers to persons determined to find out more about the past. -- Conduct the interview where the subject is most at ease, if possible at his or her home. -- Prepare for the interview by reading everything by or about the subject and by developing background in- formation about the person's (please turn to page 6A) NAMMNI|| 13 -, .Serving Over 48 Communities in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont July 22, 1981 Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet changes helm who had visited some 15 Sixth L 'I NEW COMMANDER--Pierside in her homeport of Gaeta, Italy, the flagship, USS Puget Sound (AD 38) fires salutes as her crew roans the .S. Sixth Fleet Change of Command Ceremony held various U.S. and European assignment from Washington, Duff dignitaries, and military D.C., where he served as officials attended the late-Deputy Chief of Naval morning ceremony. Operations (Surface War- In the homeport of the Sixth fare). Fleet flagship, Vice Adm. Speakers at the ceremony the U.S. Sixth William N. Small, USN, was included Admiral Thomas B. Naval relieved by Vice Adm. Hayward, USN, ChiefofNaval Forces William H. Rowden, USN. Operations; Admiral William changed Adm. Small has been promo- j. Crowe, Jr., USN, Corn- solemn45- ted to the four-star rank of mander-in-Chief, Allied aboard the Admiral, and will report for Forces Southern Europe; and flagship, the duty as Vice Chief of Naval Vice Adm. Ronald J. Hays, USS Puget Operations at the Pentagon in USN, Commander-in-Chief, in Gaeta, Italy. Washington D.C. Vice Adm. U.S. Naval Forces Europe. ZnVited guests, Rowden comes to his new Admiral Hayward, CNO, hails through the lumber pieces. Cut all plywood parts to size and then follow this order to assembly: back to sides, then the bottom, followed by the top and the two dividers. It's a good idea when doing the frame to cut parts longer than necessary. Trim them to exact length as you add them to the project. Plywood edges will be ex- posed on the top -edges of the back and the sides. You can finish those edges with strips of veneer banding. RRESIDE BEHCH Pt=terld= last ndy because it extra seating as for logs and The a pocket you use a 2" thick height of the 18" -- corn- is 3/4" plywood the front frame are cut from joints are butted with glue and nails through Parts, 6d finishing Fleet ships during the week preceding the ceremony, assured the new Sixth Fleet Commander of the readiness of the Fleet. The CNO said after the visit, "The pride, spirit, patriotism and positive attitude which I saw manifested in all the units which I visited during the past week were a source of in- spiration to me personally, ai:/d continuing evideflce of  ability of Navy people to , deliver what the country requires when the chips are down. Sixth Fleet is a living example of all that pride and professionalism stands for, and is setting a standard of excellence to which the whole Navy can aspire." The Commander of NATO's Southern Region, Admiral i : William J. Crowe, Jr., USN, stressed the importance of the U.S. Sixth Fleet as part of America's NATO com- mitment to Western Europe. "For 30 years Western Europe has been spared external agression and hostilities," said Crowe. "This is due in large part, if not solely, to the collective strength of NATO. This is no mean achievement. . It is unparalleled in the annals of history in modern Europe." The NATO commander also emphasized the importance of the NATO nations in the Mediterranean working together for the common goal of the preservation of peace. "The Sixth Fleet," said Crowe, "stands as testimony ! 2pcs, 2 2pcs. 3 Ipc. 4 2pcs. 5 lpc. 6 2pcs. 7 lpc. 8 2pcs. 30 ships, |00 aircraft and : 20,000 sailors and Marines on ..... duty to help protect U.S. in- terests and to preserve peace in the Mediterranean area. THE COMMANDER SPEAKS---Members of the official party listen to remarks by Vice Adm. William H. Rowden, USN, new Commander of the Sixth Fleet, during a change of Command ceremony held June 5 in Gaeta, Italy aboard the U.S. Sixth Fleet flagship, the destroyer tender USS Puget Sound (AD 38). (From left to right) Vice Adm. Ronald J. Hays, USN, Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe; Admiral Thomas B. Hayward, USN, Chief of Naval Operations; Vice Adm. William N. Small, USN, Commander U.S. Sixth Fleet; Vice Adm. Rowden and Admiral William J. Crowe, Jr., USN, Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe. to Washington's commitment to NATO. Every day we see evidence for the Soviet's respect for the power that the Sixth Fleet represents. The tragedy is," he added, "that we don't see evidence of their respect for the ideals that it represents--just the power." Vice Adm. Ronald J. Hays, USN, Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe also emphasized the im- portance of the U.S. Sixth Fleet. "There hasn't been a war at sea in more than 35 years," stressed Vice Adm. Hays, "an extended period that serves as a testimonial to success in our primary mission to prevent war. There's been no war because we've had the strength to prevent it." Departing Commander Vice Adm. Small praised Italy's firm commitment to NATO. "The Italian Navy, our host, has been extremely cooperative on every issue that arises." The Chief of Naval Operations presented Vice Adm. Small the U.S. Navy's highest peacetime award, the Distinguished Service Medal (Gold star in lieu of second award) for his outstanding performance and duty as Commander U.S. Sixth Fleet from July 1979 to June 1981. The United States Sixth Fleet is made up of more than x 16x 17 soltwood plywood x t 6 x 34 flwood plywood x I 7 x 34 softwood plywood x 14x 16 softwood plywood x I  x 36 matching lumber x  x 15 matching lumber x  34 matching lumber x  14 matching lumber RECEIVING AWARD--U.S. Navy Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Thomas B. Hayward pins the Distinguished Service Medal on the outgoing Sixth Fleet Commander, Vice Adm. William N. Small, USN, during a Change of Command ceremony held June 5 aboard Sixth Fleet flagship USS Puget Sound (AD 38) in port Gaeta, Italy, The Distinguished Service Medal is the highest peacetime award of the U.S. Navy. MORE PICTURES ON PAGE 2A AND 8A. Naval career spans WOODSVILLE--Vice Admiral William H. Rowden was born in Woodsville, N.H, on May 12, 1930. He attended the U.S. Naval Academy, graduating with the Class of 1952. He was subsequently assigned to USS YARNALL (DD 541), operating with the U.S. Seventh Fleet in support of United Nations actions in Korea, and then as Executive Officer and Commanding Officer of the coastal minesweeper, USS COR- MORANT (MSC 122). An assignment to the Bureau of Naval Persorinel, Washington, D.C., followed before returning to sea as Executive Officer of USS LESTER (DE 1022). He earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Ordnance Engineering in 1961 from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, and then assumed comnand of USS BAUER (DE 1025). The BAUER was operating in the South China Sea as a unit of the U.S. Seventh Fleet at the beginning of the Navy's involvement in the Vietnam conflict. He served as Personal Aide to the Commander in Chief Pacific from 1965 to 1967 and spent six months as a student at the Armed Forces Staff College, Norfolk, Virginia, before assuming command of USS LYNDE MCCORMICK (DDG 8). Following assign- ment to the Surface Missile Systems Project and the Anti- Ship Missile Defense Project both in Washington, D.C., Vice Admiral Rowden returned to sea in August 1973 as Com- manding Officer, USS COLUMBUS (CG 12). From USS COLUMBUS, Vice Admiral Rowden was assigned to the Pentagon in 1974 as Deputy Director Surface Weapons Systems Division (OP-35), in 1975 as Director Combat Direction Systems Division (0P-34) ; and in 1976 as Director, Surface Combat Systems Division (0P-35). Vice Admiral Rowden then commanded Cruiser- Destroyer Group THREE from July 1977 to May 1979 before becoming Assistant Deputy Chief of Naval Opera tions ( Surface Warfare) in June 1979 and Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Surface Warfare) in September 1980. Vice Admiral Rowden is married to the former Sarah Sumner of Rockford, Illinois, they have three children: Jane, Tom and John. Garage Sale July 25 -- 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. River Road, Piermont, N.H. FOLLOW SIGNS PAINTING We do complete exterior scraping and painting Call Fortunati Brothers 802-439-6179 Your ad, this size, on page 1 of the Second Opinion is only $5.00 HAS A FRIEND TOLD YOU ... Lunch is now being served on the deck of BONNIE OAKS overlooking Lake Morey... ... SOME FRIEND Your ad, this size, on page of the Second Opinion is 0nly $10.00 WESI FAIRLEE CENTER CHURCH MIDDI,E BROOK ROAD SUNDAY July 26-- 7:30 PM Rev. Stephen J. Nelson. ] I ! Smithsonian News Service Photo courtesy of Art, Photographs of Artists Collection One Oral histories offset decline in letters and diaries by DavidM. Maxfield recollections of the nation's Since then, the technique "the method stimulates discuss that.  be questioned in a relaxed, information about certain Smithsonian News Service decision-makers and pace- Historians and archivists setters. ar)e concerned: Americans Pioneered at Columbia arewriting fewer letters these University in the late 1940s, days and for the most part no the first so-called oral history longer keeping diaries, once interviews recorded the invaluable research sources memoirs of political and for piecing together the past. military leaders who had To help counter this loss, participated in World War II, however, many professionals Gens. Dwight D. Eisenhower are turning on their tape and Omar N. Bradley among recorders to capture the others. Playing major roles in making New York the capital of contemporary art during the 1950s were these two artists, Helen Frankenthaler and Hans Hof- mann, photographed then in their studios. Known as Abstract Expressionists, these and other artists, who recalled that special decade for the Archives of American Art oral history program, valued the creative act of painting itself. has become a valuable resource for such organizations as the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art, where millions of original research materials deeded by artists, collectors, critics and others document U.S. cultural history. The Archives' collection of talks- on-tape, for example, helps chart how New York City became the world capital of contemporary art in the 1950s. And now thousands of families and local history buffs also are finding tape cassettes useful tools for puzzling together their own heritage. The principles and benefits--not to mention potential pitfalls--involved in taping the histories apply to both the professional researcher and the amateur genealogical sleuth. "At its best," says Garnett McCoy, senior curator of the Archives, spontaneity which, under Besides this sort of in- informed probing by a terruption, faulty memories detached but sympathetic and lack of objectivity also questioner, produces un- studied and revealing recollections." The secret of the successful interview, one veteran of the technique maintains, is "an abiding interest in people, an interest which puts them at ease and encourages a good flow of conversation." can flaw an interview Then, too, some subjects may insist on their own self-serving version of the past: still others wander through a maze of irrelevant trivia. While written and printed material remains the "bread and butter" of research for most historians, the taped But things can and do go interview, McCoy believes, wrong. "A 1959 interview in offers one quality often the Archives' collection with missing in a collection of the American realist painter papers--"the vivid detail, the Edward Hopper produced graphic phrase, the element of little more than a series of color expressed in spon- blunt "yes" and "no" replies taneous conversation." to questions about the theme Ideally, he adds, the in- of his work--loneliness and terviews are supplementary alienation in America. At last, research tools, one record when Hopper, eager to talk among others in an in- about prices his paintings dividual's personal papers. were commanding, began to In taping the interview, open upa bit, Mrs. Hoppercut Archives' staff members in, "Edward! Don't you recommend that the subject unstructured manner At the same time, the interviewer must know exactly what type of information is needed in order to guide the con- versation along. And the in- terviewer should recognize the significance of off-hand remarks and references so they can be pursued, ex- panded upon and pinned down. The ultimate success or failure of an interview, McCoy says, depends on the tact, persistence anci experience of the interviewer, but as im- portant as these qualities are, the most important ingredient is preliminary homework. "The more the interviewer knows about the field in which his respondent is a figure, the greater will be the respect and cooperation he inspires." In reconstructing the past, the more interviews that can be taped the better. A talk with one person will provide events, other individuals and trends--from rthat in- terviewee's vantage point. Two interviews touching on the same subject will produce a more balanced picture, McCoy says, and a whole series of talks will enable the historian to sift, compare and analyze with a "reasonable assurance of arriving at the truth." Historians and archivists experienced with oral history projects offer the following additional pointers to persons determined to find out more about the past. -- Conduct the interview where the subject is most at ease, if possible at his or her home. -- Prepare for the interview by reading everything by or about the subject and by developing background in- formation about the person's (please turn to page 6A) NAMMNI|| 13 -, .Serving Over 48 Communities in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont July 22, 1981 Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean U.S. Sixth Fleet changes helm who had visited some 15 Sixth L 'I NEW COMMANDER--Pierside in her homeport of Gaeta, Italy, the flagship, USS Puget Sound (AD 38) fires salutes as her crew roans the .S. Sixth Fleet Change of Command Ceremony held various U.S. and European assignment from Washington, Duff dignitaries, and military D.C., where he served as officials attended the late-Deputy Chief of Naval morning ceremony. Operations (Surface War- In the homeport of the Sixth fare). Fleet flagship, Vice Adm. Speakers at the ceremony the U.S. Sixth William N. Small, USN, was included Admiral Thomas B. Naval relieved by Vice Adm. Hayward, USN, ChiefofNaval Forces William H. Rowden, USN. Operations; Admiral William changed Adm. Small has been promo- j. Crowe, Jr., USN, Corn- solemn45- ted to the four-star rank of mander-in-Chief, Allied aboard the Admiral, and will report for Forces Southern Europe; and flagship, the duty as Vice Chief of Naval Vice Adm. Ronald J. Hays, USS Puget Operations at the Pentagon in USN, Commander-in-Chief, in Gaeta, Italy. Washington D.C. Vice Adm. U.S. Naval Forces Europe. ZnVited guests, Rowden comes to his new Admiral Hayward, CNO, hails through the lumber pieces. Cut all plywood parts to size and then follow this order to assembly: back to sides, then the bottom, followed by the top and the two dividers. It's a good idea when doing the frame to cut parts longer than necessary. Trim them to exact length as you add them to the project. Plywood edges will be ex- posed on the top -edges of the back and the sides. You can finish those edges with strips of veneer banding. RRESIDE BEHCH Pt=terld= last ndy because it extra seating as for logs and The a pocket you use a 2" thick height of the 18" -- corn- is 3/4" plywood the front frame are cut from joints are butted with glue and nails through Parts, 6d finishing Fleet ships during the week preceding the ceremony, assured the new Sixth Fleet Commander of the readiness of the Fleet. The CNO said after the visit, "The pride, spirit, patriotism and positive attitude which I saw manifested in all the units which I visited during the past week were a source of in- spiration to me personally, ai:/d continuing evideflce of  ability of Navy people to , deliver what the country requires when the chips are down. Sixth Fleet is a living example of all that pride and professionalism stands for, and is setting a standard of excellence to which the whole Navy can aspire." The Commander of NATO's Southern Region, Admiral i : William J. Crowe, Jr., USN, stressed the importance of the U.S. Sixth Fleet as part of America's NATO com- mitment to Western Europe. "For 30 years Western Europe has been spared external agression and hostilities," said Crowe. "This is due in large part, if not solely, to the collective strength of NATO. This is no mean achievement. . It is unparalleled in the annals of history in modern Europe." The NATO commander also emphasized the importance of the NATO nations in the Mediterranean working together for the common goal of the preservation of peace. "The Sixth Fleet," said Crowe, "stands as testimony ! 2pcs, 2 2pcs. 3 Ipc. 4 2pcs. 5 lpc. 6 2pcs. 7 lpc. 8 2pcs. 30 ships, |00 aircraft and : 20,000 sailors and Marines on ..... duty to help protect U.S. in- terests and to preserve peace in the Mediterranean area. THE COMMANDER SPEAKS---Members of the official party listen to remarks by Vice Adm. William H. Rowden, USN, new Commander of the Sixth Fleet, during a change of Command ceremony held June 5 in Gaeta, Italy aboard the U.S. Sixth Fleet flagship, the destroyer tender USS Puget Sound (AD 38). (From left to right) Vice Adm. Ronald J. Hays, USN, Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe; Admiral Thomas B. Hayward, USN, Chief of Naval Operations; Vice Adm. William N. Small, USN, Commander U.S. Sixth Fleet; Vice Adm. Rowden and Admiral William J. Crowe, Jr., USN, Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe. to Washington's commitment to NATO. Every day we see evidence for the Soviet's respect for the power that the Sixth Fleet represents. The tragedy is," he added, "that we don't see evidence of their respect for the ideals that it represents--just the power." Vice Adm. Ronald J. Hays, USN, Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe also emphasized the im- portance of the U.S. Sixth Fleet. "There hasn't been a war at sea in more than 35 years," stressed Vice Adm. Hays, "an extended period that serves as a testimonial to success in our primary mission to prevent war. There's been no war because we've had the strength to prevent it." Departing Commander Vice Adm. Small praised Italy's firm commitment to NATO. "The Italian Navy, our host, has been extremely cooperative on every issue that arises." The Chief of Naval Operations presented Vice Adm. Small the U.S. Navy's highest peacetime award, the Distinguished Service Medal (Gold star in lieu of second award) for his outstanding performance and duty as Commander U.S. Sixth Fleet from July 1979 to June 1981. The United States Sixth Fleet is made up of more than x 16x 17 soltwood plywood x t 6 x 34 flwood plywood x I 7 x 34 softwood plywood x 14x 16 softwood plywood x I  x 36 matching lumber x  x 15 matching lumber x  34 matching lumber x  14 matching lumber RECEIVING AWARD--U.S. Navy Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Thomas B. Hayward pins the Distinguished Service Medal on the outgoing Sixth Fleet Commander, Vice Adm. William N. Small, USN, during a Change of Command ceremony held June 5 aboard Sixth Fleet flagship USS Puget Sound (AD 38) in port Gaeta, Italy, The Distinguished Service Medal is the highest peacetime award of the U.S. Navy. MORE PICTURES ON PAGE 2A AND 8A. Naval career spans WOODSVILLE--Vice Admiral William H. Rowden was born in Woodsville, N.H, on May 12, 1930. He attended the U.S. Naval Academy, graduating with the Class of 1952. He was subsequently assigned to USS YARNALL (DD 541), operating with the U.S. Seventh Fleet in support of United Nations actions in Korea, and then as Executive Officer and Commanding Officer of the coastal minesweeper, USS COR- MORANT (MSC 122). An assignment to the Bureau of Naval Persorinel, Washington, D.C., followed before returning to sea as Executive Officer of USS LESTER (DE 1022). He earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Ordnance Engineering in 1961 from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, and then assumed comnand of USS BAUER (DE 1025). The BAUER was operating in the South China Sea as a unit of the U.S. Seventh Fleet at the beginning of the Navy's involvement in the Vietnam conflict. He served as Personal Aide to the Commander in Chief Pacific from 1965 to 1967 and spent six months as a student at the Armed Forces Staff College, Norfolk, Virginia, before assuming command of USS LYNDE MCCORMICK (DDG 8). Following assign- ment to the Surface Missile Systems Project and the Anti- Ship Missile Defense Project both in Washington, D.C., Vice Admiral Rowden returned to sea in August 1973 as Com- manding Officer, USS COLUMBUS (CG 12). From USS COLUMBUS, Vice Admiral Rowden was assigned to the Pentagon in 1974 as Deputy Director Surface Weapons Systems Division (OP-35), in 1975 as Director Combat Direction Systems Division (0P-34) ; and in 1976 as Director, Surface Combat Systems Division (0P-35). Vice Admiral Rowden then commanded Cruiser- Destroyer Group THREE from July 1977 to May 1979 before becoming Assistant Deputy Chief of Naval Opera tions ( Surface Warfare) in June 1979 and Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Surface Warfare) in September 1980. Vice Admiral Rowden is married to the former Sarah Sumner of Rockford, Illinois, they have three children: Jane, Tom and John. Garage Sale July 25 -- 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. River Road, Piermont, N.H. FOLLOW SIGNS PAINTING We do complete exterior scraping and painting Call Fortunati Brothers 802-439-6179 Your ad, this size, on page 1 of the Second Opinion is only $5.00 HAS A FRIEND TOLD YOU ... Lunch is now being served on the deck of BONNIE OAKS overlooking Lake Morey... ... SOME FRIEND Your ad, this size, on page of the Second Opinion is 0nly $10.00 WESI FAIRLEE CENTER CHURCH MIDDI,E BROOK ROAD SUNDAY July 26-- 7:30 PM Rev. Stephen J. Nelson.