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Bradford , Vermont
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July 29, 1981     Journal Opinion
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July 29, 1981
 

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depicts a wedding banquet table on which elaborate mechanical of food. Smithsonien News Service Illustration the Snithsonian's Museum of American History, displays a drinking 1600S. Smlthsonien News Service Photo by KIm Nielsen Timely amusements Sixteenth century view of universe by MADELEINE JACOBS Smithsonian News Service Twenty-three hundred years ago, guests invited to the homes of Egyptian royalty might have whiled away the evening quaffing wine served from a golden goblet by an ingenious mechanical figure of Bacchus. Today's well- heeled counterparts might entertain their guests with elaborate electronic games and gadgetry, not to mention home video centers. From the affluent ancients to the present-day prosperous, the wealthy classes throughout history have shared the pursuit of pleasure. In their quest, they have generously applied time, talent and technology to create devices to amuse and amaze. But neither the ancients nor the modern-day rich could begin to compete with the 16th-century European princes and potentates who spared no expense to hire the best scientific minds and craftsmen to invent and build objects of wonder, pomp and play. Especially popular in the court of German Renaissance nobility were exquisitely crafted automata--self- moving and self-propelled human figures, animals and vehicles. These distant an- cestors of today's robots greeted visiting dignitaries at state receptions, played a role in drinking games at boisterous revelries and diverted guests at ceremonies and festivities. Picture the wedding celebration of one nobleman, Johann Wilhelm of Julich, whose marriage was recorded for posterity by an artist of the time. A 1587 woodcut depicts a sumptuous banquet table on which mechanical horses, elephants, birds, camels, lions, bears, unicorns and a whole menagerie of real and mythical creatures strut, sway, parade and prance among platters laden with food. In fact, the table is so cluttered with the fantastic devices that guests at Wilhelm's nuptial feast must have had great difficulty finding anything to eat. These devices, like others created during the era, not only moved; some played music or re-created animal noises. And because their motions were programmed by clockworks hidden in their innards, many automata could even tell guests when it was time to go home. Indeed, automata and clocks were integrated from the earliest times. Craftsmen and clockmakers constructed hundreds of automata for the ruling classes during this period. Because they were made of sturdy materials--silver, bronze, copper, iron, brass and even gold--many of the devices have survived in private collections and museums throughout the world. More than 40 of these works built between 1550 and 1650 are now on display, along with 80 other German Renaissance master clockworks and timepieces, at the Smithsonian's Museum of American History in Washington, D.C. The exhibit, "The Clockwork Universe," sponsored in collaboration with the Bayerisches National Museum in Munich, gives a rare glimpse of a century when the modern world was born. "We look at these objects today as trivial playthings," Dr. Otto Mayr, curator of mechanisms at the Museum and co-organizer of the exhibit, says. "But we tend to forget that they were based on a great technological achievement--the develop- ment of the mechanical clock. "Moreover, the automata and clockworks are reflec- tions of the thoughts, feelings and hopes of the thinkers, the nobility and the ordinary people of the period. Rarely in history has a machine so directly expressed and, in turn, affected the intellectual climate of its time." In Mayr's view, clockworks represented "the sharpest conceivable contrast to the prevailing reality of the times, which were marked by the collapsing political and social order of the Middle Ages, by wars of religion arising out of the Reformation and by the multitude of revolutionary scientific new ideas and the social unrest which they unleashed." The mechanical clock was invented a little before 1300 in Western Europe. By whom and precisely where are unknown. Prior to its in- vention, people had relied on the sun and its movements to tell time, but within a century of its creation, nearly every town of consequence boasted a mechanical clock in its town hall or church tower. (please turn to page 2A) ! Smithsonian News Service Photo courtesy of Bayerisches Nationatmuseum. Munich |u the 1500s and ]600s, automata---self.,, x L,g human figures, animals and vehicles powered by mechanical clockworks---were popular entertainments in the courts of German nobility. An early form was this "angel" clock with carillon made around 1583; the "hammer" in human shape strikes bells to tell time. calls for some but it's well Scope of anyone piece of it with a -- maple, a light tone, a darker ap- the leg (parts No. and then out the locations The holes to form if you but good accomplished and brace, 'c, %., You work with a  a) ) the surfaces  e glue and  [ surfaces  we . GLASS TOP COFFEE TABLE Matedab Ult I 8 Pcs. 1 x 4 x 16 lumber 2 4pcs. 1 x 4 x 22 lumber 3 16 PcJ. " diameter dowel x 2" long 4 4 pcs.  x  x 27 lumber 5 i pc. x 27 x 27 plate glass dif- have bar clamp. If use loop the then twist of wood. under so you wood. Allow the the glass. Instead, pieces, You install /z" plywood that you can veneer with a plastic laminate of your choice. You can, of course, also use a piece of plywood that matches the wood species used for the table frame. uot to have a piece of Serving Over 48 Communities in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont July 29, 1981 Raising prize-winners is an easy garden art BURLINGTON--The county fair is traditionally a place to have a good time and where you leave lots of money behind. Lyn Jarvis, Extension television specialist at the University of Vermont, has a new slant on fair time. He has a good time preparing for it and he comes away with more money then he entered with. Jarvis doesn't spend his time on the midway trying to win stuffed pandas. He can be found in the vegetable and flower display buildings. In each of the past three years, Jarvis, who claims to be a novice gardener, has won more than $100 in prize money from his entries at the For example, about a month quintuplets," he said. "A are picked to compliment use care in packing entries to Champlain Valley Exposition. before fair time Jarvis applies critical point to remember is flower colors and shapes, take them to the fairgrounds. "It's enough to pay for all fertilizer to everything he my gardening supplies and plans toenter. still have some money left He also checks for the best over," he explained. "And vegetables and picks the ill- l've learned it's not too hard to formed and small ones for his produce a prize-winner." table. The first step, according to All wilted flower blooms and Jarvis, is to obtain a premium those that are misshapen or catalog from the fair where small are also removed to you plan to enter your allow just the best to grow produce. This catalog lists all larger. the entry categories and When selecting vegetables premiums, for the fair, Jarvis looks for "There's something for those which are the most everyone in the family to try," alike. Shape must he perfect, Jarvis added. "Competing at and each member of the entry the fair is truly a hobby the should look like every other whole family can enjoy." one. After deciding which "Be prepared to dig dozens categories to enter, the next of carrots, beets and potatoes thing is to use common sense, to find five or so that look like that it's not size that counts, "Pick and arrange the Hours of effort can be reuined but the grouping that has the delicate blooms last, such as by a tipped-over vase, or by most identical vegetables." nasturtiums, cosmos and jamming the vegetables or And when washing and petunias," he added, flowers too closely together. packing them for the trip to His final bit of advice was to the fair be careful not to puncture them with a Students sought for music camp fingernail. This can result in a brown spot by judging time CANAAN--The New Ham- 29 at the Cardigan Mountain and cause disqualffication, pshire Youth Orchestra is School in Canaan. A full-time Every flower which Jarvis looking for a few good music teaching staff is corn- uses in his displays have to be students to join its music plemented by guest artists-in- perfect in color and shape, and camp next month, residence. originality is a key factor in "We're over last year's This summer, guest artists the arrangements, enrollment," according to include Samuel Baron of the Jarvis fills his vases with Executive Director Jeanne New York Woodwind Quintet; blooms, but he doesn't crowd Sachs, "but we want to make Emanuel Borok, assistant the individual blossoms. He an all-out effort to reach (please turn to page JA) also uses ferns and asparagus talented young musicians in greens to help set off his this state and alert them to arrangements, and the vases this opportunity. We're YARD'GARAGE SALE especially interested in young people age 10-18, who are i i . _ - string players." [ So ial Se urity cost up all er the world | The NewHampshireYouth C C O) Orchestra Music Camp runs LITTLETON--A survey cent in the United Kingdom. ln tries. In 1979, the combined a society is willing to pay for for three weeks from Aug. 9 - [ shows that the social in- the United States the wage tax rate for all social in- its social insurance system. surance systems of other base increased by 194 per surance programs was 16.46 The figures may reflect countries are facing the same problem of rising costs as in the United States. Social insurance taxes in all countries are up, with the U.S. tax increases ranking somewhere in the middle of the range of increases among the various countries. In the 11 industrialized countries compared in the survey, social insurance tax rates were significantly in- creased between 1971 and 1979. Increases ranged from 100 per cent in Sweden and 60 per cent in Great Britain to a low of between 4 and 5 per cent in Italy, the Netherlands, and Austria. The increase in Germany was 18 per cent; France, 57 per cent; Japan, 20 per cent; and Switzerland, 55 per cent. The United States social insurance taxes increased by 23 per cent, from 13.4 per cent in 1971 to 16.46 per cent in 1979. Social insurance programs in the United States include the Federal retirement, survivors, and disability programs, and the unem- ployment  insurance 'and cent, from $7,800 in 1971 to per cent compared to 50.8 per totally different systems in $22,900 in 1979. cent in the Netherlands and many respects. In general, the The study showed that the 47.45 per cent in France. countries with the highest tax tax rate in the United States Such comparisons, rate have the most liberal still ranks among the lowest however, are useful only in programs and benefits, among industrialized coun- terms of considering the costs ranging from national health insurance to maternity WEST FAIRLEE CENTER CHURCH MIDDLE BROOK ROAD SUNDAY August 2--7:30 PM Rev. Arthur E. Bagley REST' n NEST CAMPGROUND We accommodate all kinds of campers including on-site camper rentals. V4 Mile off 1-91 at Exit 14 E. Thetford, Vt., 802.785-2997 S, NNUAL BAZAAR - RUMMAGE SALE CHICKEN BBQ Aug. 1st & 2ud-- 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Our Lady Queen of Peace, Orford benefits, coverage of partial disability, and family allowances. The study showed that in addition to raising taxes to increase income other actioos have been taking to reduce costs. These include cutting back on certain benefits, monitoring eligibility more closely, and searching for ways to reduce expenses, particularly in the health care area. Several countries have deferred program im- provements in order to cut cost increases. Several other countries have taken steps to , slow the inflationary impact of [ the cost-of.living index on[ benefit increases. West l Germany, Italy, Belgium, and l Finland have placed a cap on i (please turn to page 4A) I J.A. PETERS RTE. s BRADFORD Thurs.-Sat. July 30-Aug. i PAINTING We do complete exterior scra ping and paint ing Call Fortunatl Brothers 802-4396179 GARAGE SALE July 31 and Aug. 1 10AM toSPM Middle of hill on Fairground Road Bradford HAS A FRIEND TOLD YOU ... Lunch is now being served on the deck of BONNIE OAKS overlooking Lake Morey,.. ... SOME FRIEND THETFORD HILL FAIR "The Quiet Fair" Saturday, August 1st, 1:00 - 5:00 Chicken Barbecue at 5:00 Hondmode orficbs, hommode foods, chtldnm's parade end Oomes, gifts, ontiues/rden produce, hoyride, troin ride pbnt=, informol shocks, femol ten, mos, historko exhtbh. NORTH COUNTRY CHORUS RUMMAGE SALE This weekend at Indian Corn Mill Apple Stand See page 2 for oer ad i workers' compensation programs. Increases in the amount of wages subject to the social 00mty tax, e.alled.0000a00 base, were also sgnmcan, ranging from 97 per cent in Austria to a high of 0 per Your ad, this size, on page 1 of the Second Opinion is only $10.00 Your ad, this size, on page 1 of the Second Opinion is only $5.00 MACGAL'S FRAMING STUDIO & ANTIQUE SALON WE BUY & SELL ANTIQUES Fairlee, Vermont Phone 802-333-9210 at the Old Railroad Station Open 7 days per week 9-5 depicts a wedding banquet table on which elaborate mechanical of food. Smithsonien News Service Illustration the Snithsonian's Museum of American History, displays a drinking 1600S. Smlthsonien News Service Photo by KIm Nielsen Timely amusements Sixteenth century view of universe by MADELEINE JACOBS Smithsonian News Service Twenty-three hundred years ago, guests invited to the homes of Egyptian royalty might have whiled away the evening quaffing wine served from a golden goblet by an ingenious mechanical figure of Bacchus. Today's well- heeled counterparts might entertain their guests with elaborate electronic games and gadgetry, not to mention home video centers. From the affluent ancients to the present-day prosperous, the wealthy classes throughout history have shared the pursuit of pleasure. In their quest, they have generously applied time, talent and technology to create devices to amuse and amaze. But neither the ancients nor the modern-day rich could begin to compete with the 16th-century European princes and potentates who spared no expense to hire the best scientific minds and craftsmen to invent and build objects of wonder, pomp and play. Especially popular in the court of German Renaissance nobility were exquisitely crafted automata--self- moving and self-propelled human figures, animals and vehicles. These distant an- cestors of today's robots greeted visiting dignitaries at state receptions, played a role in drinking games at boisterous revelries and diverted guests at ceremonies and festivities. Picture the wedding celebration of one nobleman, Johann Wilhelm of Julich, whose marriage was recorded for posterity by an artist of the time. A 1587 woodcut depicts a sumptuous banquet table on which mechanical horses, elephants, birds, camels, lions, bears, unicorns and a whole menagerie of real and mythical creatures strut, sway, parade and prance among platters laden with food. In fact, the table is so cluttered with the fantastic devices that guests at Wilhelm's nuptial feast must have had great difficulty finding anything to eat. These devices, like others created during the era, not only moved; some played music or re-created animal noises. And because their motions were programmed by clockworks hidden in their innards, many automata could even tell guests when it was time to go home. Indeed, automata and clocks were integrated from the earliest times. Craftsmen and clockmakers constructed hundreds of automata for the ruling classes during this period. Because they were made of sturdy materials--silver, bronze, copper, iron, brass and even gold--many of the devices have survived in private collections and museums throughout the world. More than 40 of these works built between 1550 and 1650 are now on display, along with 80 other German Renaissance master clockworks and timepieces, at the Smithsonian's Museum of American History in Washington, D.C. The exhibit, "The Clockwork Universe," sponsored in collaboration with the Bayerisches National Museum in Munich, gives a rare glimpse of a century when the modern world was born. "We look at these objects today as trivial playthings," Dr. Otto Mayr, curator of mechanisms at the Museum and co-organizer of the exhibit, says. "But we tend to forget that they were based on a great technological achievement--the develop- ment of the mechanical clock. "Moreover, the automata and clockworks are reflec- tions of the thoughts, feelings and hopes of the thinkers, the nobility and the ordinary people of the period. Rarely in history has a machine so directly expressed and, in turn, affected the intellectual climate of its time." In Mayr's view, clockworks represented "the sharpest conceivable contrast to the prevailing reality of the times, which were marked by the collapsing political and social order of the Middle Ages, by wars of religion arising out of the Reformation and by the multitude of revolutionary scientific new ideas and the social unrest which they unleashed." The mechanical clock was invented a little before 1300 in Western Europe. By whom and precisely where are unknown. Prior to its in- vention, people had relied on the sun and its movements to tell time, but within a century of its creation, nearly every town of consequence boasted a mechanical clock in its town hall or church tower. (please turn to page 2A) ! Smithsonian News Service Photo courtesy of Bayerisches Nationatmuseum. Munich |u the 1500s and ]600s, automata---self.,, x L,g human figures, animals and vehicles powered by mechanical clockworks---were popular entertainments in the courts of German nobility. An early form was this "angel" clock with carillon made around 1583; the "hammer" in human shape strikes bells to tell time. calls for some but it's well Scope of anyone piece of it with a -- maple, a light tone, a darker ap- the leg (parts No. and then out the locations The holes to form if you but good accomplished and brace, 'c, %., You work with a  a) ) the surfaces  e glue and  [ surfaces  we . GLASS TOP COFFEE TABLE Matedab Ult I 8 Pcs. 1 x 4 x 16 lumber 2 4pcs. 1 x 4 x 22 lumber 3 16 PcJ. " diameter dowel x 2" long 4 4 pcs.  x  x 27 lumber 5 i pc. x 27 x 27 plate glass dif- have bar clamp. If use loop the then twist of wood. under so you wood. Allow the the glass. Instead, pieces, You install /z" plywood that you can veneer with a plastic laminate of your choice. You can, of course, also use a piece of plywood that matches the wood species used for the table frame. uot to have a piece of Serving Over 48 Communities in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont July 29, 1981 Raising prize-winners is an easy garden art BURLINGTON--The county fair is traditionally a place to have a good time and where you leave lots of money behind. Lyn Jarvis, Extension television specialist at the University of Vermont, has a new slant on fair time. He has a good time preparing for it and he comes away with more money then he entered with. Jarvis doesn't spend his time on the midway trying to win stuffed pandas. He can be found in the vegetable and flower display buildings. In each of the past three years, Jarvis, who claims to be a novice gardener, has won more than $100 in prize money from his entries at the For example, about a month quintuplets," he said. "A are picked to compliment use care in packing entries to Champlain Valley Exposition. before fair time Jarvis applies critical point to remember is flower colors and shapes, take them to the fairgrounds. "It's enough to pay for all fertilizer to everything he my gardening supplies and plans toenter. still have some money left He also checks for the best over," he explained. "And vegetables and picks the ill- l've learned it's not too hard to formed and small ones for his produce a prize-winner." table. The first step, according to All wilted flower blooms and Jarvis, is to obtain a premium those that are misshapen or catalog from the fair where small are also removed to you plan to enter your allow just the best to grow produce. This catalog lists all larger. the entry categories and When selecting vegetables premiums, for the fair, Jarvis looks for "There's something for those which are the most everyone in the family to try," alike. Shape must he perfect, Jarvis added. "Competing at and each member of the entry the fair is truly a hobby the should look like every other whole family can enjoy." one. After deciding which "Be prepared to dig dozens categories to enter, the next of carrots, beets and potatoes thing is to use common sense, to find five or so that look like that it's not size that counts, "Pick and arrange the Hours of effort can be reuined but the grouping that has the delicate blooms last, such as by a tipped-over vase, or by most identical vegetables." nasturtiums, cosmos and jamming the vegetables or And when washing and petunias," he added, flowers too closely together. packing them for the trip to His final bit of advice was to the fair be careful not to puncture them with a Students sought for music camp fingernail. This can result in a brown spot by judging time CANAAN--The New Ham- 29 at the Cardigan Mountain and cause disqualffication, pshire Youth Orchestra is School in Canaan. A full-time Every flower which Jarvis looking for a few good music teaching staff is corn- uses in his displays have to be students to join its music plemented by guest artists-in- perfect in color and shape, and camp next month, residence. originality is a key factor in "We're over last year's This summer, guest artists the arrangements, enrollment," according to include Samuel Baron of the Jarvis fills his vases with Executive Director Jeanne New York Woodwind Quintet; blooms, but he doesn't crowd Sachs, "but we want to make Emanuel Borok, assistant the individual blossoms. He an all-out effort to reach (please turn to page JA) also uses ferns and asparagus talented young musicians in greens to help set off his this state and alert them to arrangements, and the vases this opportunity. We're YARD'GARAGE SALE especially interested in young people age 10-18, who are i i . _ - string players." [ So ial Se urity cost up all er the world | The NewHampshireYouth C C O) Orchestra Music Camp runs LITTLETON--A survey cent in the United Kingdom. ln tries. In 1979, the combined a society is willing to pay for for three weeks from Aug. 9 - [ shows that the social in- the United States the wage tax rate for all social in- its social insurance system. surance systems of other base increased by 194 per surance programs was 16.46 The figures may reflect countries are facing the same problem of rising costs as in the United States. Social insurance taxes in all countries are up, with the U.S. tax increases ranking somewhere in the middle of the range of increases among the various countries. In the 11 industrialized countries compared in the survey, social insurance tax rates were significantly in- creased between 1971 and 1979. Increases ranged from 100 per cent in Sweden and 60 per cent in Great Britain to a low of between 4 and 5 per cent in Italy, the Netherlands, and Austria. The increase in Germany was 18 per cent; France, 57 per cent; Japan, 20 per cent; and Switzerland, 55 per cent. The United States social insurance taxes increased by 23 per cent, from 13.4 per cent in 1971 to 16.46 per cent in 1979. Social insurance programs in the United States include the Federal retirement, survivors, and disability programs, and the unem- ployment  insurance 'and cent, from $7,800 in 1971 to per cent compared to 50.8 per totally different systems in $22,900 in 1979. cent in the Netherlands and many respects. In general, the The study showed that the 47.45 per cent in France. countries with the highest tax tax rate in the United States Such comparisons, rate have the most liberal still ranks among the lowest however, are useful only in programs and benefits, among industrialized coun- terms of considering the costs ranging from national health insurance to maternity WEST FAIRLEE CENTER CHURCH MIDDLE BROOK ROAD SUNDAY August 2--7:30 PM Rev. Arthur E. Bagley REST' n NEST CAMPGROUND We accommodate all kinds of campers including on-site camper rentals. V4 Mile off 1-91 at Exit 14 E. Thetford, Vt., 802.785-2997 S, NNUAL BAZAAR - RUMMAGE SALE CHICKEN BBQ Aug. 1st & 2ud-- 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Our Lady Queen of Peace, Orford benefits, coverage of partial disability, and family allowances. The study showed that in addition to raising taxes to increase income other actioos have been taking to reduce costs. These include cutting back on certain benefits, monitoring eligibility more closely, and searching for ways to reduce expenses, particularly in the health care area. Several countries have deferred program im- provements in order to cut cost increases. Several other countries have taken steps to , slow the inflationary impact of [ the cost-of.living index on[ benefit increases. West l Germany, Italy, Belgium, and l Finland have placed a cap on i (please turn to page 4A) I J.A. PETERS RTE. s BRADFORD Thurs.-Sat. July 30-Aug. i PAINTING We do complete exterior scra ping and paint ing Call Fortunatl Brothers 802-4396179 GARAGE SALE July 31 and Aug. 1 10AM toSPM Middle of hill on Fairground Road Bradford HAS A FRIEND TOLD YOU ... Lunch is now being served on the deck of BONNIE OAKS overlooking Lake Morey,.. ... SOME FRIEND THETFORD HILL FAIR "The Quiet Fair" Saturday, August 1st, 1:00 - 5:00 Chicken Barbecue at 5:00 Hondmode orficbs, hommode foods, chtldnm's parade end Oomes, gifts, ontiues/rden produce, hoyride, troin ride pbnt=, informol shocks, femol ten, mos, historko exhtbh. NORTH COUNTRY CHORUS RUMMAGE SALE This weekend at Indian Corn Mill Apple Stand See page 2 for oer ad i workers' compensation programs. Increases in the amount of wages subject to the social 00mty tax, e.alled.0000a00 base, were also sgnmcan, ranging from 97 per cent in Austria to a high of 0 per Your ad, this size, on page 1 of the Second Opinion is only $10.00 Your ad, this size, on page 1 of the Second Opinion is only $5.00 MACGAL'S FRAMING STUDIO & ANTIQUE SALON WE BUY & SELL ANTIQUES Fairlee, Vermont Phone 802-333-9210 at the Old Railroad Station Open 7 days per week 9-5