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October 7, 1981     Journal Opinion
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,qnq ,11 ,il The American house.. ... the American dream by DAVID M. MAXFIELD Smithsonian News Service The single-family house, some maintain, is as obsolete as that other erstwhile icon of American life, the tail-finned, chromeplated, mini-mileage gas guzzler. Yet never before has anything considered so culturally dated been in more demand, more expensive or a better investment. Despite soaring mortgage rates and operating costs, the old home place is still a bulwark of the  I l ,] "l 1 ] American dream, albeit one _ ] now in reach of only about 15 percent of potential homebuyers. A related reason for this demand, says architect Service Photo courtesy of Hugh Newell Jacobsen Warren Cox, moderator of a Photograph by Robert Lautman recent Smithsonian Resident ;-i!:!ii i'i Associate lecture series on the look, history and problems facing the American house, comes down to this fact of life: The home--like the inhabitant's dog--is often a tangible reflection of the class, culture, aspirations and, not infrequently, the actual appearance of the residents themselves. What do these "residents" look like today? And how are they changing to cope with the economic realities predicted to become even more severe during the 1980s? At the moment, the house coming off the architects' drawing boards is a structure that is fresh and con- temporary, yet garbed with traditional architectural elements. It is a product of the modern design concepts of the 20th century--flat, geometric exteriors and open, spacious interior planning--but with references to the past--perhaps shingles, classical columns or barn- siding. "The eclectic tradition of earlier periods, discarded for several decades, is reviving now," award-winning ar- chitect Robert Stern of New York says. "Architects are again turning to the past for inspiration." To a great extent, though, this describes the "architect's house," one custom-designed for a client able to afford a bit of experimentation, one where innovation flourishes because the penalty for failure is small. Other homes, of course, are on the market. And today, it seems, architecture is in a period of pluralism not seen since the Victorian age. There are solar-designed houses whose functional requirements dictate their appearances. There is a new interest in earth-sheltered houses. There are houses with built-in- whimsy that spoofs earlier architectural periods. And there are the mass- reproduced houses spreading across the landscape, some of them praised for their design "honesty" and others con- demned for their "misuse" of materials and architectural styles. This diversity, however, comes at a time when ar- chitecture and homebuilding are in the midst of crisis, the outcome of which is going to affect the way Americans live in future years. Just as the house of the 19th century reflected the lifestyles of that period with such features as cellars for food storage, verandas for summer nights and dining rooms to ac- commodate large families, today's economic realities are Architect Hugh Newell Jacobsen of Washington, D.C., has tailored the front of a house in Pennsylvania in a traditional "telescope" look to blend with its surroundings while the contemporary features desired by his client are dramatically provided in the back. dictating the look of con- temporary homes. Because of inflation, high interest rates and energy costs, the trend is now toward smaller houses, way down from the 2,000-3,000 square feet of the 1950s; and once again, generations of families are sharing the same home, says Charles Moore, former chairman of the Yale Schools of Architecture. "The problem of af- fordability is our biggest problem," West Coast builder Robert Fisher agrees. "We are now seeing two unrelated families buying houses together, and in San Fran- cisco, we are taking units and dividing them in half." "Large picture windows are no more," Fisher says. The windows now going into houses are carefully con- sidered for function and location. For example, passive solar systems, so simple in principle, call for windows on the south side of buildings to catch the winter sun and depend on awnings and nearby trees to provide summer shade. Houses that rely on this approach still need con- ventional heating, but they may use as much as 75 percent less fuel than regular buildings, according to a recent Worldwatch Institute report. And, by the way, those fashionable rooftop skylights of recent years are terrible energy wasters; it is better to install them vertically, preferably high on south- facing walls. Leading architects and builders also contend that another factor--red tape--is pushing real estate prices skyward. Government ap- proval processes can be so time consuming, says Fisher, that in one project where $25,000 was budgeted for legal reviews and planning, the costs soared to close to $250,000. Fisher believes that, as a result of these review delays, there will soon be a "back- lash" as those who will pay for "anti-growth policies wake up and see they can't afford housing." Some states already have enacted so-called "anti- snob" laws whereby growth is permissible, unless it can be shown that a new housing project endangers life quality and natural resources, But Fisher concedes he has no answer to how the delays inherent in the review process can be prevented or shor- tened. Residential architecture (oday is being buffeted by still another factor--a debate within the profession over something called "con- {please turn to page 3A) SmlthsonJlln News Service Photo courtely of American Institute of Architects; PhotOgraph by Christian Staub On the West Coast, the Washington state architectural firm of Morgan and Lindstrom designed this award-winning house so not to disturb its natural setting. TODAY'S Taxpayer be allowed to l One additional -- the CIRCULATING IN= NEW NAMPSINBtE -- Lyme, tyme Canter, Orford, Orfordville, Piermmnt, Haverhill, Haverhill Cantor, Haverhill Corner, North Haverhill, East Haverhill, Pike, Woodsvillo, Bath, Monroe, Lisbon, Landaff t bn_ tgn, Lymon, Worron, Gloncliff, Wentworth . , . VBIMONT -- Thetford, est Thefford, Thetford HilI Thetford Center, North Thotford, Post Mills, Foirlee, West Foirleo, Bradford, Bradford Village, Corinth, East Corinth, Topsham, West Topstmm, Nowbury Vtllago, South Nowbury, West Newbury, Walls River, Groton, Ryete Comer, [lost Roete, South Ryegete, "Peeg-Iem, ernet, West Berntt: .Serving Over 48 C0mmunities in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont THIS WEEK'S PRESS RUN 9,100 October 7, 1981 are as to apply as Panelings, and choices ai'e for any from con- or an old Decide after displayed by or make the and then see Chances are find into 2" strips make excellent furring. In any event, the furring is applied as shown in the drawing -- verticals, 48" on centers (over studs) ; horizontals, 16" on centers and nailed at each stud crossing. The horizontal pieces will he easy to install ff you make a special gauge--a enticement: 4' x 8', for one- Place one have 32 new, easily 1. It's an at- way to will a room (15') 66'. SO 66' as 16tz window, are deduc- a Panel for :, of ! = course, these are variables, so measuring for the deductions is wise. You don't buy half panels. If your arithmetic says 141/2 panels, buy 15. Be generous -- it's better than being short. Extra paneling can he useful -- for matching cornice or a shield for con- cealed lighting. Many people use the same paneling as a veneer on existing doors. 4@ f / oF I0 APPLICATION If walls are sound and true, paneling may he applied directly with nails or glue. Most times when remodeling, it's been found that covering the wall with a gridwork of furring strips' solves all problems. Usually 1 x 2 sound, dry lumber is used, but plywood is a good candidate. Plywood furring can be as thin as %", as wide as 2". "Scrap" pieces of 3/4" plywood ripped Fumng , red o oJck throu0h @ ed vddl omtn rne a solM FuntnQ 't mw ur,,en ud  ve nd o  wood  r h,= mma n =-o=M do= md piece of wood that is 16" long, less the width of one furring piece. Thus, if furring is IVz" wide, the spacing gauge will be 14Va" long. The joint between horizontal and vertical strips must not be tight. Also, leave a gap of about V4" between the top strip and the ceiling and between the bottom strip and the floor to allow for breather space. POSITIONING THE PANELS First, spread the panels around the room so you can judge the best placement in relation to tone and grain pattern. Number the panels on the back so you'll knew where each will go. The first panel goes in a corner, placed so its free edge hits the center of a vertical furring strip. Use a level to he sure the panel is perfectly vertical. You may have to reshape the corner edge of the panel if the room corner is not plumb. If the panel abuts an irregular wall -- a brick or a stone surface -- you'll have to shape the panel's edge ac- (please turn to page 7A) I ....... " I1' FIREWOOD & TREE SERVICE Mixed Hardwood $70. cord. Cut, split, delivered. Bob Holly: call 222-4566 before 8:00 a.m., after 5:00 & BEAN SUPPER of St. John Vlaney Chapel at S:00 to 7:00 P.M. in the Warren & UNDER $1.25 SNOW PLOWING Now scheduling plowing in Bradford area. If in- terested call 802-222-5735, 802-222-5750 or 802-222-4590. Leave message and will return call. Stanley Home Products Dorothy J. Cook, Dealer Post Mills, Vt. 05058 802:333-9264 4th Annual Penny Social Mt. Moesllauke Health Center Saturday, October 10 at 7:00 P,M. at Warren, N.H. Town Hall Admission: $1.00 The article entitled "Who were and who are the Shakers?" published in last week's Second Opinion was reprinted from "The Shakers and the World's People" by Fin Morse, copyrighted January 1980 by Fin Morse and published by Dodd, Mead and Company in 1981. Copies of the book are available at Dartmouth Bookstore in Hanover, N.H. The Yankee Book Shop in Woodstock, Vt., the Canterbury Shaker Village in Canterbury, N.H. and also available at other fine bookstores and libraries. E:NERGY Cost of heating water can be reduced by 50% by BILL CHRISTIANSEN Energy Outreach Advisor The heating of domestic hot water may account for one- third to one-half of the homes Windows are losers of heat in your house .on-00pa00 heating energy consumption. The cost of by BILL CHRISTIANSEN ches of insulation, it would heating " water can be Energy Outreach then cost you about $.13 per significantly reduced with a Advisor square foot per year in your few energy conservation Of all of the parts of a house heating bill. If the average steps. that lose heat, windows are window is 14 square feet, it First, if you are presently the biggest losers. In the. costs you $24.22 per year heating your hot water with average house, more than 15 single glazed, $12.18 double your furnace, consider a new percent of the heat loss is glazed, or $1.82 if changed to a system. With heating oil in the through the windows. So, stud wall. $1.30 range, tankless coils on significant energy saving can South facing windows are furnaces is the most expensive be made by just upgrading the not quite as bad. Since there is way to heat water. It's nice in windows, some solar gain, they cost you the winter, but very costly in A single glazed window, one about $I.II per square foot per the summer. During the sheet of glass, has an R-value year in your heating bill for a Summer months you have to of about .88. Adding a storm single glazed window, or $.61 heat the whole boiler and window, so we have two for double glazing. Our maintain its temperature just glazing changes the R value to average 14 square foot win- to heat a few gallons of water. 1.79, about double. Going to dow, double glazed will cost us In some homes this a_mounts triple glazing, two storm $8.54 per year. to almost V4 of their yearly oil windows, raises the R value to To look at this another way, consumption. 2.78. By contrast, one inch of our North window costs $12.18 Most water heaters should fiberglass insulation has an R per year, double glazed, and be set at a temperature of ll0- value of 3.12. SO, while a triple our South window $8.59, so the 120 degrees. This is hot enough glazed window has an R 2.78, sunshine saved us $3.64. This for most jobs in the home. The the insulated 2 x 4 stud wall looks good until we remember higher the temperature set- around the window has an R of that a stud wall would have ring on the tank, the greater about 15. In some new houses only cost us $1.82 in our are the stand-by losses and the as much as 50 percent of the heating bill. Any way we look more it costs the homeowner. wall area in some rooms is at this problem, it works out If you have a dishwasher, the glass, that windows are an expensive recommended temperature is Window orientation is also luxury, usually given as 140 degrees. As you look around your This temperature does not very important. South facing windows lose heat at night, but gain heat on sunny days. North facing windows, on the other hand, never gain. East and West windows fall bet- ween these two extremes. In the ideal house we would have most of the windows on the South side, a few on the east and west and none on the North side. However, few houses have this window arrangement. To put this loss into money, single glazed, North facing windows cost you about $1.73 house, give some thought to sterilize the dishes, it only the use of windows. Many makes the dishwashing could probably be eliminated detergent work a bit better. It without any real change to the would be cheaper all around to feel of thb home. For example, lower the water temperature basement windows, windows and find a detergent for the in bathrooms and bedrooms dishwasher that will do the are of little value. Seldom does job. anyone go into the basement If you are installing a new without turning on the lights, hot water heater, there are a so of what value is the few ideas that shouldhekept basement window? Ven- in mind to keep costs down. tilation is often given as an Locate the heater as close as I pe r square foot per year on your heating bill if you use oil. Double glazing the window draperies. It would becheaper would cut the cost to $.87 per to burn a light bulb for a few square f?ot per year. If you hours than to have the window removed the window, studded losing heat all the time. in the hole and added 3, in- answer. There are cheaper ways to ventilate a basement than with windows. Bathroom windows usually end up covered with curtains or Authorized qOLKSwAGEN AUDI--MAZDA Sales & Service CROSSWAY MOTORS Barre-Montpelior Rd. 802.223-3434 How to fi00mre de0000ee days All during the heating season, one hears a discussion possible to where the water of Degree Days going on. The will be used. This will reduce newspaper as well as the heat loss through the pipes television keeps a running as well as reduce the amount total for us to ponder each of water that has to run day. This can be useful in- through the heater each time a formation if it is put to use by tap is turned on. Use the the homeowner. smallest diameter water pipe The concept of a degree day possible. This reducestheheat was first introduced by the loss in the pipe and reduces heating oil companies. They the volume of water used in needed a way to relate the the home. average daily temperature to Another way to save money the amount of heating oil used. if you have an electric hot So, a smple formula was water heater is to take ad- devised to do this. It was found vantage of off-peak rates thai in most homes, if the offered by most utilities. The average outside temperature off-peak rates are usually was 65 degrees or above, no much lower than the regular heating oil was used. So a rates. Many people are con- formula was devised thatsaid, cerned that they will run out of subtract the average daily hot water during the off part of outside temperature from 65 the cycle. With an 80 gallon hot degrees and this would be the water heater, this seldom number of degree days for the happens. If it does happen, 24 hour period The average then some minor changes in daily temperMure was (please turn to page 8A) (please turn to page 2A) APPLES & elDER INDIAN CORN MILL APPLE STAND Route 10 Haverhill, N.H. (Near bridge to Newbury) Open Daily: It AM-GPMSun.: 12-GPM 603-787-6445 CHICKEN PIE SUPPER Sat., net, In, 1981 5p.m. 'tll all served Cookeville Hall, Corinth, Vt. SPONSOlllD BY CORINTH SlID.SCRAMBLERS- ADULTS: $3,75 CUILOILIN: S1 .SB ll !1 ARE ALL-SAVERS FOR SAVERS? For some answers... See BNB ad on page 2A. Your ad, this size, on page of the Second Opinion is only $10.00 00ifrdm SCENIC AIRPLANE OR GLIDER RIDES Offer Expires October 31,1981 One coupon per person please POST MILLS AIRPORT Annual Congreptional Church RUMMAGE SALE 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM-- October 8, 9 & 10, 1981 at the old thenter building in Bradford, Vermont. ,qnq ,11 ,il The American house.. ... the American dream by DAVID M. MAXFIELD Smithsonian News Service The single-family house, some maintain, is as obsolete as that other erstwhile icon of American life, the tail-finned, chromeplated, mini-mileage gas guzzler. Yet never before has anything considered so culturally dated been in more demand, more expensive or a better investment. Despite soaring mortgage rates and operating costs, the old home place is still a bulwark of the  I l ,] "l 1 ] American dream, albeit one _ ] now in reach of only about 15 percent of potential homebuyers. A related reason for this demand, says architect Service Photo courtesy of Hugh Newell Jacobsen Warren Cox, moderator of a Photograph by Robert Lautman recent Smithsonian Resident ;-i!:!ii i'i Associate lecture series on the look, history and problems facing the American house, comes down to this fact of life: The home--like the inhabitant's dog--is often a tangible reflection of the class, culture, aspirations and, not infrequently, the actual appearance of the residents themselves. What do these "residents" look like today? And how are they changing to cope with the economic realities predicted to become even more severe during the 1980s? At the moment, the house coming off the architects' drawing boards is a structure that is fresh and con- temporary, yet garbed with traditional architectural elements. It is a product of the modern design concepts of the 20th century--flat, geometric exteriors and open, spacious interior planning--but with references to the past--perhaps shingles, classical columns or barn- siding. "The eclectic tradition of earlier periods, discarded for several decades, is reviving now," award-winning ar- chitect Robert Stern of New York says. "Architects are again turning to the past for inspiration." To a great extent, though, this describes the "architect's house," one custom-designed for a client able to afford a bit of experimentation, one where innovation flourishes because the penalty for failure is small. Other homes, of course, are on the market. And today, it seems, architecture is in a period of pluralism not seen since the Victorian age. There are solar-designed houses whose functional requirements dictate their appearances. There is a new interest in earth-sheltered houses. There are houses with built-in- whimsy that spoofs earlier architectural periods. And there are the mass- reproduced houses spreading across the landscape, some of them praised for their design "honesty" and others con- demned for their "misuse" of materials and architectural styles. This diversity, however, comes at a time when ar- chitecture and homebuilding are in the midst of crisis, the outcome of which is going to affect the way Americans live in future years. Just as the house of the 19th century reflected the lifestyles of that period with such features as cellars for food storage, verandas for summer nights and dining rooms to ac- commodate large families, today's economic realities are Architect Hugh Newell Jacobsen of Washington, D.C., has tailored the front of a house in Pennsylvania in a traditional "telescope" look to blend with its surroundings while the contemporary features desired by his client are dramatically provided in the back. dictating the look of con- temporary homes. Because of inflation, high interest rates and energy costs, the trend is now toward smaller houses, way down from the 2,000-3,000 square feet of the 1950s; and once again, generations of families are sharing the same home, says Charles Moore, former chairman of the Yale Schools of Architecture. "The problem of af- fordability is our biggest problem," West Coast builder Robert Fisher agrees. "We are now seeing two unrelated families buying houses together, and in San Fran- cisco, we are taking units and dividing them in half." "Large picture windows are no more," Fisher says. The windows now going into houses are carefully con- sidered for function and location. For example, passive solar systems, so simple in principle, call for windows on the south side of buildings to catch the winter sun and depend on awnings and nearby trees to provide summer shade. Houses that rely on this approach still need con- ventional heating, but they may use as much as 75 percent less fuel than regular buildings, according to a recent Worldwatch Institute report. And, by the way, those fashionable rooftop skylights of recent years are terrible energy wasters; it is better to install them vertically, preferably high on south- facing walls. Leading architects and builders also contend that another factor--red tape--is pushing real estate prices skyward. Government ap- proval processes can be so time consuming, says Fisher, that in one project where $25,000 was budgeted for legal reviews and planning, the costs soared to close to $250,000. Fisher believes that, as a result of these review delays, there will soon be a "back- lash" as those who will pay for "anti-growth policies wake up and see they can't afford housing." Some states already have enacted so-called "anti- snob" laws whereby growth is permissible, unless it can be shown that a new housing project endangers life quality and natural resources, But Fisher concedes he has no answer to how the delays inherent in the review process can be prevented or shor- tened. Residential architecture (oday is being buffeted by still another factor--a debate within the profession over something called "con- {please turn to page 3A) SmlthsonJlln News Service Photo courtely of American Institute of Architects; PhotOgraph by Christian Staub On the West Coast, the Washington state architectural firm of Morgan and Lindstrom designed this award-winning house so not to disturb its natural setting. TODAY'S Taxpayer be allowed to l One additional -- the CIRCULATING IN= NEW NAMPSINBtE -- Lyme, tyme Canter, Orford, Orfordville, Piermmnt, Haverhill, Haverhill Cantor, Haverhill Corner, North Haverhill, East Haverhill, Pike, Woodsvillo, Bath, Monroe, Lisbon, Landaff t bn_ tgn, Lymon, Worron, Gloncliff, Wentworth . , . VBIMONT -- Thetford, est Thefford, Thetford HilI Thetford Center, North Thotford, Post Mills, Foirlee, West Foirleo, Bradford, Bradford Village, Corinth, East Corinth, Topsham, West Topstmm, Nowbury Vtllago, South Nowbury, West Newbury, Walls River, Groton, Ryete Comer, [lost Roete, South Ryegete, "Peeg-Iem, ernet, West Berntt: .Serving Over 48 C0mmunities in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont THIS WEEK'S PRESS RUN 9,100 October 7, 1981 are as to apply as Panelings, and choices ai'e for any from con- or an old Decide after displayed by or make the and then see Chances are find into 2" strips make excellent furring. In any event, the furring is applied as shown in the drawing -- verticals, 48" on centers (over studs) ; horizontals, 16" on centers and nailed at each stud crossing. The horizontal pieces will he easy to install ff you make a special gauge--a enticement: 4' x 8', for one- Place one have 32 new, easily 1. It's an at- way to will a room (15') 66'. SO 66' as 16tz window, are deduc- a Panel for :, of ! = course, these are variables, so measuring for the deductions is wise. You don't buy half panels. If your arithmetic says 141/2 panels, buy 15. Be generous -- it's better than being short. Extra paneling can he useful -- for matching cornice or a shield for con- cealed lighting. Many people use the same paneling as a veneer on existing doors. 4@ f / oF I0 APPLICATION If walls are sound and true, paneling may he applied directly with nails or glue. Most times when remodeling, it's been found that covering the wall with a gridwork of furring strips' solves all problems. Usually 1 x 2 sound, dry lumber is used, but plywood is a good candidate. Plywood furring can be as thin as %", as wide as 2". "Scrap" pieces of 3/4" plywood ripped Fumng , red o oJck throu0h @ ed vddl omtn rne a solM FuntnQ 't mw ur,,en ud  ve nd o  wood  r h,= mma n =-o=M do= md piece of wood that is 16" long, less the width of one furring piece. Thus, if furring is IVz" wide, the spacing gauge will be 14Va" long. The joint between horizontal and vertical strips must not be tight. Also, leave a gap of about V4" between the top strip and the ceiling and between the bottom strip and the floor to allow for breather space. POSITIONING THE PANELS First, spread the panels around the room so you can judge the best placement in relation to tone and grain pattern. Number the panels on the back so you'll knew where each will go. The first panel goes in a corner, placed so its free edge hits the center of a vertical furring strip. Use a level to he sure the panel is perfectly vertical. You may have to reshape the corner edge of the panel if the room corner is not plumb. If the panel abuts an irregular wall -- a brick or a stone surface -- you'll have to shape the panel's edge ac- (please turn to page 7A) I ....... " I1' FIREWOOD & TREE SERVICE Mixed Hardwood $70. cord. Cut, split, delivered. Bob Holly: call 222-4566 before 8:00 a.m., after 5:00 & BEAN SUPPER of St. John Vlaney Chapel at S:00 to 7:00 P.M. in the Warren & UNDER $1.25 SNOW PLOWING Now scheduling plowing in Bradford area. If in- terested call 802-222-5735, 802-222-5750 or 802-222-4590. Leave message and will return call. Stanley Home Products Dorothy J. Cook, Dealer Post Mills, Vt. 05058 802:333-9264 4th Annual Penny Social Mt. Moesllauke Health Center Saturday, October 10 at 7:00 P,M. at Warren, N.H. Town Hall Admission: $1.00 The article entitled "Who were and who are the Shakers?" published in last week's Second Opinion was reprinted from "The Shakers and the World's People" by Fin Morse, copyrighted January 1980 by Fin Morse and published by Dodd, Mead and Company in 1981. Copies of the book are available at Dartmouth Bookstore in Hanover, N.H. The Yankee Book Shop in Woodstock, Vt., the Canterbury Shaker Village in Canterbury, N.H. and also available at other fine bookstores and libraries. E:NERGY Cost of heating water can be reduced by 50% by BILL CHRISTIANSEN Energy Outreach Advisor The heating of domestic hot water may account for one- third to one-half of the homes Windows are losers of heat in your house .on-00pa00 heating energy consumption. The cost of by BILL CHRISTIANSEN ches of insulation, it would heating " water can be Energy Outreach then cost you about $.13 per significantly reduced with a Advisor square foot per year in your few energy conservation Of all of the parts of a house heating bill. If the average steps. that lose heat, windows are window is 14 square feet, it First, if you are presently the biggest losers. In the. costs you $24.22 per year heating your hot water with average house, more than 15 single glazed, $12.18 double your furnace, consider a new percent of the heat loss is glazed, or $1.82 if changed to a system. With heating oil in the through the windows. So, stud wall. $1.30 range, tankless coils on significant energy saving can South facing windows are furnaces is the most expensive be made by just upgrading the not quite as bad. Since there is way to heat water. It's nice in windows, some solar gain, they cost you the winter, but very costly in A single glazed window, one about $I.II per square foot per the summer. During the sheet of glass, has an R-value year in your heating bill for a Summer months you have to of about .88. Adding a storm single glazed window, or $.61 heat the whole boiler and window, so we have two for double glazing. Our maintain its temperature just glazing changes the R value to average 14 square foot win- to heat a few gallons of water. 1.79, about double. Going to dow, double glazed will cost us In some homes this a_mounts triple glazing, two storm $8.54 per year. to almost V4 of their yearly oil windows, raises the R value to To look at this another way, consumption. 2.78. By contrast, one inch of our North window costs $12.18 Most water heaters should fiberglass insulation has an R per year, double glazed, and be set at a temperature of ll0- value of 3.12. SO, while a triple our South window $8.59, so the 120 degrees. This is hot enough glazed window has an R 2.78, sunshine saved us $3.64. This for most jobs in the home. The the insulated 2 x 4 stud wall looks good until we remember higher the temperature set- around the window has an R of that a stud wall would have ring on the tank, the greater about 15. In some new houses only cost us $1.82 in our are the stand-by losses and the as much as 50 percent of the heating bill. Any way we look more it costs the homeowner. wall area in some rooms is at this problem, it works out If you have a dishwasher, the glass, that windows are an expensive recommended temperature is Window orientation is also luxury, usually given as 140 degrees. As you look around your This temperature does not very important. South facing windows lose heat at night, but gain heat on sunny days. North facing windows, on the other hand, never gain. East and West windows fall bet- ween these two extremes. In the ideal house we would have most of the windows on the South side, a few on the east and west and none on the North side. However, few houses have this window arrangement. To put this loss into money, single glazed, North facing windows cost you about $1.73 house, give some thought to sterilize the dishes, it only the use of windows. Many makes the dishwashing could probably be eliminated detergent work a bit better. It without any real change to the would be cheaper all around to feel of thb home. For example, lower the water temperature basement windows, windows and find a detergent for the in bathrooms and bedrooms dishwasher that will do the are of little value. Seldom does job. anyone go into the basement If you are installing a new without turning on the lights, hot water heater, there are a so of what value is the few ideas that shouldhekept basement window? Ven- in mind to keep costs down. tilation is often given as an Locate the heater as close as I pe r square foot per year on your heating bill if you use oil. Double glazing the window draperies. It would becheaper would cut the cost to $.87 per to burn a light bulb for a few square f?ot per year. If you hours than to have the window removed the window, studded losing heat all the time. in the hole and added 3, in- answer. There are cheaper ways to ventilate a basement than with windows. Bathroom windows usually end up covered with curtains or Authorized qOLKSwAGEN AUDI--MAZDA Sales & Service CROSSWAY MOTORS Barre-Montpelior Rd. 802.223-3434 How to fi00mre de0000ee days All during the heating season, one hears a discussion possible to where the water of Degree Days going on. The will be used. This will reduce newspaper as well as the heat loss through the pipes television keeps a running as well as reduce the amount total for us to ponder each of water that has to run day. This can be useful in- through the heater each time a formation if it is put to use by tap is turned on. Use the the homeowner. smallest diameter water pipe The concept of a degree day possible. This reducestheheat was first introduced by the loss in the pipe and reduces heating oil companies. They the volume of water used in needed a way to relate the the home. average daily temperature to Another way to save money the amount of heating oil used. if you have an electric hot So, a smple formula was water heater is to take ad- devised to do this. It was found vantage of off-peak rates thai in most homes, if the offered by most utilities. The average outside temperature off-peak rates are usually was 65 degrees or above, no much lower than the regular heating oil was used. So a rates. Many people are con- formula was devised thatsaid, cerned that they will run out of subtract the average daily hot water during the off part of outside temperature from 65 the cycle. With an 80 gallon hot degrees and this would be the water heater, this seldom number of degree days for the happens. If it does happen, 24 hour period The average then some minor changes in daily temperMure was (please turn to page 8A) (please turn to page 2A) APPLES & elDER INDIAN CORN MILL APPLE STAND Route 10 Haverhill, N.H. (Near bridge to Newbury) Open Daily: It AM-GPMSun.: 12-GPM 603-787-6445 CHICKEN PIE SUPPER Sat., net, In, 1981 5p.m. 'tll all served Cookeville Hall, Corinth, Vt. SPONSOlllD BY CORINTH SlID.SCRAMBLERS- ADULTS: $3,75 CUILOILIN: S1 .SB ll !1 ARE ALL-SAVERS FOR SAVERS? For some answers... See BNB ad on page 2A. 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